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close this bookThe Use of Effluents from Biolatrines in Tanzania (African Development Foundation, 1996, 38 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentForeword
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsThe problem defined
Open this folder and view contentsBiolatrine technology
View the documentPublic health aspects
View the documentFertilizer production and usage
View the documentResearch plan
Open this folder and view contentsResearch findings and interpretation
View the documentConclusions and recommendations
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAppendix

Appendix

Appendix 1. Production of Fertilizer at Tanzania Fertilizer Company Plant Tanga 1972-1990 (000 Mt)

Year

S/A

TSP

DAP

NPK

Blends

Total

1972

-

6.6

2.0

6.2

-

14.8

1973

4.7

9.9

-

1.7

-

11.6

1974

15.4

24.9

0.5

18.3

-

59.1

1975

18.0

19.7

-

1.6

-

39.3

1976

18.3

7.2

6.6

4.0

-

36.1

1977

15.7

8.3

-

12.8

-

36.8

1978

16.1

8.2

-

20.1

-

44.4

1979

25.4

4.5

-

8.2

9.1

47.2

1980

19.5

12.3

-

13.9

5.1

50.8

1981

24.9

14.5

-

13.2

14.4

67.0

1982

6.8

2.9

-

-

4.0

13.7

1983

14.8

7.1

-

.5

6.8

29.2

1984

22.6

8.8

-

-

20.2

51.6

1985

15.2

8.2

-

-

18.0

41.4

1986

19.3

3.5

-

-

24.2

47.0

1987

8.8

.5

-

-

10.0

19.3

1988

3.5

-

-

-

3.4

6.9

1989

14.9

3.4

-

-

8.8

27.1

Appendix 2. Analysis of Influent and Effluent, Oljoro Military Camp

Specimen

Inf. 1

Infl. 2

Infl. 3

Holding

Effl.

Effl.

Effl.

Salmonella

-

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

V. cholera

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Shigella

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

NSG

P.E. Coli

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Entamoeba

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

Ascaris

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Trichuris

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Hookworms

-

+

-

-

+

+

-

Schistosoma

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Taenia

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tests were conducted at Nairobi University, March 1993.

NSG = No significant growth (noted)
- = negative
+ = positive
1, 2, 3: Different zones in the main digester

Appendix 3. Pathogens Found at Sampled Sites

Distance from digester bottom

Biogas Extension Service 16 m²

Oljoro Military Camp 32 m²

Livestock Institute, Tengeru 16 m²

Patandi Hospital, Tengeru 30 m²

0.5 m

Ascaris ova

Ascaris ova

negative

negative

1.0 m

negative

Ascaris ova

Ascaris ova

negative

1.5 m

negative

negative

negative

Shigella dysenteriae

Pathogens tested for included salmonellas, shigellas, Vibrio cholerae, Path E.Coli, Entamoeba, Ascaris, Trichuris, Hookworms, Schistosoma, and Taenia.

Tests were carried out at Kenya Medical Research Centre, Department of Microbiology, July 1993.

Appendix 4. Pathogens Found at Sampled Sites

Specimen

BES Biolatrine

Oljoro Military Camp Biolatrine

Livestock Training Institute Biolatrine

Influent

Ascaris ova

Ascaris ova

Ascaris ova

Effluent

negative

negative

negative

Analysis was carried out in Mount Meru Hospital, Arusha, August 1993.

Pathogens tested for included salmonellas, shigellas, Vibrio cholerae, Path. E.Coli, Entamoeba, Ascaris, Hookworms, Schistosoma, and Taenia.

Appendix 5. Pathogens in Vegetables Irrigated with Biolatrine Effluents

Specimen

Enter - virus

V cholera

Path. E. Coli

Shigella

Salmonella

Enteric Parasites

M-onion

-

-ve

-ve

-ve

-ve

-

M-tomato

-

-ve

-ve

-ve

-ve

-

M-cabbage

-

-ve

-ve

-ve

-ve

-

M-carrot

-

-ve

-ve

-ve

-ve

-

B-cabbage

-

-ve

+ve

-ve

-ve

-

B-tomato

-

-ve

-ve

-ve

-ve

-

B-carrot

-

-ve

-ve

-ve

-ve

-

B-onion

-

-ve

+ve

-ve

-ve

-

The sample vegetables were from the test pilot at the Biogas Extension Service Office - Arusha.

Key: -ve = negative
+ve = positive
- = not done
M = Market sample
B = Vegetable fertilized by the biolatrine effluent

Appendix 6. Coliform Bacteria in Vegetables, Bacteria Count per Gram

Vegetable

Brought from Arusha public market

Picked from test garden fed on biolatrine effluent - Biogas Extension Service Office, Arusha

Spinach

more than 2400/g

negative

Lettuce

75/g

11/g

Tomato

negative

negative

The laboratory tests were conducted at and by the Tanzania Bureau of Standards, Dar es Salaam, March 1993.

African Development Foundation
Board of Directors

Chair

Ernest G. Green

Vice Chair

Willie Grace Campbell

Members

Cecil J. Banks
Marion M. Dawson
John F. Hicks, Sr.
George E. Moose

African Development Foundation
1400 Eye Street, N.W.
Tenth Floor
Washington, D.C. 20005
(202) 673-3916
Fax: (202) 673-3810