|Bibliography of Studies of the Energy Cost of Physical Activity in Humans (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 1997, 162 pages)|
|4.2 Occupational activities|
1. Bondarev Gl, Demina DM, Dupik VS & Ratner EM (1978): [Energy metabolism and the requirement for food and energy in Baikal-Amur mainline workers engaged in clearing strips through the forest]. Vopr.Pitan. 60-63.
Indirect calorimetry and time studies showed the diurnal energy expenditure in wood fellers to be 5186.2, in their helpers 4476.9 and in branch choppers 5246.9 kcalories. In accordance with these energy expenditures requirements of the mentioned category of workers in energy, nutrients and other essential nutritional factors have been elaborated. Recommendations for organization of nutrition in the field are given.
2. Demina DM, Ratner EM & Bondarev Gl (1981): [Energy expenditure of operators of mechanized columns in the construction of the Baikal-Amur mainline]. Vopr.Pitan. 35-37.
Basing on the study of the daily time and energy metabolism budgets in various types of production and non-production activities, it has been established that in summer the daily energy consumption in the drivers of mechanized columns amounts to not more than 3200 kcal, being equal to 3500 kcal in winter. These data form the basis of the determination of energy and food requirements of the group of workers under consideration.
3. Frauendorf H. Kobryn U. Kohn Seyer G & Nehring P (1980): [Biological effort of male workers involved as manual laborers in drain pipe production]. Z.Gesamte.Hyg. 26, 777-780.
Physiological tests (measurements of heart rate and energy turnover) were performed on setters and transfer men during the production of drain pipes. Based on a time and motion study and taking into account breaks, the mean heart rate was calculated to 121 beats/min and the total energy metabolism 2,400 kcal (= 10 MJ) or a working energy metabolism of 1,824 kcaal (= 7,635 kJ) at mid shift. Transfer men doing the same work were found to have a heart rate of 128 beats/min and a total energy metabolism of 2,100 kcal (= 8,790 kJ). Their working energy metabolism was 1,524 kcal (= 6,380 kJ).
4. Frauendorf H. Kohn Seyer G & Gelbrich W (1981): [Heart rate and energy expenditure in selected physical tasks in steel foundries]. Z.Gesamte.Hyg. 27, 30-34.
Industrial physiological examinations of the jobs of machine moulders, hand moulders, cleaners, grinders and shakers-out were carried out in two steel foundries having different levels of mechanization. Based on heart rates and energy expenditure measured during random tests and on data obtained from work routine studies, the effort for each activity was determined. The results obtained for the two steel foundries were compared and discussed.
5. Frauendorf H. Kohn Seyer G & Hoffmann B (1978): [The biological effort put up by male workers in the unloading of sawn wood using different technologies]. Z.Gesamte.Hyg. 24, 168-172.
Occupational hygiene tests were carried out on male workers unloading sawn wood by hand and mechanically. The biological effort involved in unloading work was determined on the basis of the heart rate and energy metabolism values obtained during the tests. In the case of manual unloading, the working heart rate values were in the region of 61 +/- 11 beats/min (heart rate 142 +/- 16 beats/min), the working energy metabolism values were 6.5 +/- 1.3 Akcal/min (= 27.2 +/5.4 AkJ/min). The corresponding values recorded when unloading with the aid of machines (forklift trucks, slewing cranes) were 30 +/- 8.3 beats/min (heart rate 119 +/- 27 beats/min abd 3.9 +/- 1.1 Akcal/min (= 16.3 +/- 4.6 AkJ/min) for the working energy metabolism. The results show that the amount of biological effort involved is lower when using mechanical equipment.
6. Gritsevskii MA, Bashkirova LS & Zaitseva Zhl (1994): [Work capacity of the operators of chemical industry and its effect on motor activity]. Med.Tr.Prom.Ekol. 24-26.
Motor activity, energy metabolism, work productivity, functioning and regulation of cardiovascular system were examined in machine operators working at 2 chemical enterprises. The energy loss within the shift appeared to vary from 800 to 1200 kcal, that within the day from 2,500 to 2,900 kcal. The examinees demonstrate lack of physical training that affects the functioning of cardiovascular system. However, the study found no correlation between the Physical State Index and the work productivity. The elderly operators show higher work productivity associated with more noticeable lack of physical training. The authors conclude also that daily amount of physical load should be considered in evaluation of low physical training impact.
7. Istomin AV & Chizhov SS (1995): [Factual nutritional status in workers of a machine-building factory]. Gig.Sanit. 17-19.
Physical development, energy expenditures, morbidity, and supply with the main food-stuffs were studied in machine-building workers. Peculiarities of alimentary status of workers were basis for development of hygienic recommendations on rationalization of their nutrition.
8. Martin G. Frauendorf H. Erdmann E & Kohn-Seyer G (1979): [Work-physiology studies on the transportation of large waste-disposal containers used in municipal waste-disposal service]. Z.Gesamte Hyg. 25, 283-287.
Industrial hygiene examinations were carried out on a crew of dustmen of a minicipal waste disposal vehicle using large waste disposal containers (with capacities of 1.1 m³ and 0.55 m³). The physical strain involved was assessed on the basis of energy exchange and heart rates. The values measured in relation to active phases in two catchment areas were 4.8 Akcal = 20.1 AkJ/min at 45 working heart beats per minute and 3.4 Akcal/min = 14.3 AkJ/min at 32 working heartbeats. By extrapolating the energy exchange for the whole shift, the authors obtained a value of 3872 AkJ = 924 Akcal. The breaks that occur in the normal working cycle are seen as sufficient for recovery.
9. Martin G. Frauendorf H. Erdmann U. Kohn Seyer G & Vildosola Jl (1980): [Industrial physiological studies on trashmen during domestic refuse removal using 110-liter trash barrels and large trash receptacles]. Z.Gesamte.Hyg. 26, 579-582.
The energy exchange and pulse rates of dust men were measured while they were handling 110 litre waste bins and large waste! containers (with capacities of 0.55 m³ and 1.1 m³) in order to determine the physical strain involved in domestic waste disposal work. When handling waste bins, the dustmen were found to have an energy exchange rate of 24.2 AkJ/min (5.8 Akcal/min) and a pulse rate of 52/mint The extrapolation of the energy exchange ratio for the whole shift yields 7,027 AkJ (1,677 Akcal). The mean energy exchange calculated during the handling of large waste containers was 18 AkJ/min (4.3 Akcal/min) and the mean heart rate 40 beats/mint The energy exchange value obtained by extrapolating for the whole shift was 3,972 AkJ (924 Akcal). Based on these tests it can be concluded that the physical stress involved in handling large waste containers is less than that involved in handling conventional 110 litre waste bins, despite the fact that larger quantities of waste per unit time are handled with the larger waste containers.
10. Martinic I (1995): [Evaluation of physical exertion by statistical analysis of worker's heart rate at log skidding]. Arh.Hig.Rada.Toksikol. 46, 23-32.
Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Croatia. Results of investigation into the physical exertion of the log skidding workers: tractor driver, winch operator and choker are presented. The investigation consisted of laboratory and field measurements and included measurements of the heart rate and assessment of the work effect, the work time structure, and the worker's physical exertion and energy consumption. According to the average rate during daily work, the physical exertion of the tractor driver and winch operator was classified as low exertion (75-95 min-1), whereas that of the choker was established as medium exertion (96-115 min-1). Energy consumption was calculated for the daily working time of 262 minutes, according to field measurements and for normal eight-hour work. According to field measurement values the tractor driver's and winch operator's work was categorized as light work (1.23-2.51 MJ) and that of the choker as heavy work (2.52-6.30 MJ). According to the values for eight-hour work, the tractor driver's and the winch operator's jobs were classified as heavy work (2.52-6.30 MJ/8 h) and the choker's job as the heaviest (6.31-10.47 MJ/8 h).
11. Maver H. Kovacevic M & Grgic Z (1994): [Energy expenditure in workers who install plastic and metal pipes for water supplies and sewage]. Arh.Hig.Rada.Toksikol. 45, 367-372.
Hrvatsko antropolosko drustvo, Zagreb. The mounting of plastic and metallic water and sewage tubes is the type of work that requires a very high energy expenditure: 45 kJ/min, 9631 kJ for eight working hours and about 17,000 kJ for a working day. Working conditions involve a very demanding working posture, carrying of heavy loads and poor weather conditions. The work is considered to be very heavy physical work.
12. Peters H. Muller B & Hettinger T (1981): [Survey of work load and stress in heat-exposed work stations in the iron and steel industry]. Zentralb. Arbeitsmed. Arbeitsschutz. Prophyl. Ergonomie. 31, 356-367.
Strain in the workplace and resulting stress need to be measured and interpreted when assessing the workplace situation. The procedures described here for collecting and summarising data about activities characterised by physical work in conjunction with high climatic strain are being used in a research project currently being carried out in work areas of the iron and steel industry.
13. Peters H. Muller B & Hettinger T (1982): [Work related energy expenditure while working at a steel plant]. Zentralb.Arbeitsmed.Arbeitsschutz.Prophyl.Ergonomie. 32, 138-141.
Work strain caused by dynamic muscle work is described here in terms of work expenditure. This is determined by measuring the consumption of oxygen in individual experiments in the workplace using the integral or partial method. Evaluation by means of an easy to use estimate formula enables immediate verification of the results of the experiments. The results of work expenditure measurements in the smelting and casting workshops of various steel-making plants (basic oxygen steel-making plant, electric steel plant, Siemens-Martin steel plant, bottom casting, continuous casting) are described together with the activities carried out.
14. Peters H. Muller BH & Hettinger T (1983): [Work-energy expenditure of metallurgy occupations]. Zentralb.Arbeitsmed.Arbeitsschutz.Prophyl.Ergonomie. 34, 16-20.
Dynamic muscle work still represents today one of the most significant types of strain in the industrial workplace. The level of strain is described here in terms of work expenditure, which is determined in individual experiments in the workplace by measuring the amount of oxygen used. The results of analyses of work expenditure in the fields of coking plants, blast furnace works, flame chipping, casting, annealing plants and open hearths (Siemens-martin) steel plants are shown and the activities involved each time are described.
15. Weiler T. Jaercke-Hubschle F & Landau K (1990): [Determination of energy conversion during work with hand-guided motor mowers]. Zentralb.Arbeitsmed.Arbeitsschutz.Prophyl. Ergonomie. 40,12-16.
Hand-guided motor mowers are two-wheeled tractors, which working persons used mainly to cut grass under very difficult topographic conditions where higher mechanized work devices can no longer be used. Persons, who work with these mowers, are exposed to high energetic stress. Despite this, there is a big lack of knowledge concerning the quantity of energy conversion and possibly resulting restrictions of labour assignement. For a detailed analyses of stress the Ergonomic Job Analysis Procedure (Arbeitswissenschaftliches Erhebungsverfahren zur Tatigkeitsanalyse abbreviated in German AET) was used first. By the following determinations of energy conversion using a respirometer (Morgan Oxylog) an average value of energy conversion of 14 kJ/min was found. But it shouldn't be neglected that during the laboratory studies, the long-term performance limit of 17 kJ/min and 20 kJ/min, according to Lehmann and DIN 33 403 (June 1988), has been exceeded four times.