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close this bookEarly Child Development: Investing in the Future (World Bank, 1996, 112 pages)
close this folderPart I. The theory
close this folderApproaches to the development of young children
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentProgram design options
View the documentPhasing the introduction of inputs
View the documentDesigning a program
View the documentWorking with NGOs and other agencies

Program design options

Young children develop in the home, in day care centers, and in the community. But whether home-based or center-based, all preschool programs can consist of a combination of the following complementary approaches:

· Delivering services to children. Although usually center-based, this approach can also be used in the home. Its goal is to attend to the immediate needs of children. Examples include the U.S. Head Start program, Bolivia's Integrated Child Development Project, Colombia's Community Child Care and Nutrition Project, and India's Integrated Child Development Project.

· Training caregivers and educating parents. This approach seeks to show parents and caregivers how to improve their interaction with young children and how to improve the quality of care these children receive, enriching their environment and thereby enhancing their development. Examples include Mexico's Initial Education Project and Chile's Parent and Children Program.

· Promoting community development and helping women to achieve development objectives. This strategy stresses community initiative, organization, and participation to create a basis for the political and social changes needed to correct conditions adversely affecting child development. It usually requires extensive involvement and assistance from nongovernmental organizations engaged in the community and considerable sensitivity to local cultural needs. By providing safe and affordable child care, these programs allow mothers the opportunity to pursue work

Table 1 Complementary, program approaches for early child development


Program approach

and beneficiaries


Models and examples

Delivering services

· Children aged


· Home day care

0-2 and 3 6

· Survival

(Colombia, Bolivia)

years development

· Overall development centers (India, Brazil)

· Integrated child

· Socialization

· Caregiver child care

· "Add-on" centers (Ghana, Senegal)

· Preschools, formal and non formal (Peru)

Educating caregivers

a Parents, family Caregiver

· Home visiting (mother)

(Indonesia, Peru)

· Siblings

· Create awareness

· Parental education (China)

· Change attitudes

· Child-to-child programs Jamaica, (Chile)

· improve or change practices

Promoting community involvement

· Promoters


· Technical mobilization

· Leaders awareness

· Increase (Malaysia)

· Mobilize for action

· Social mobilization (Thailand)

· Change conditions

Caregivers (staff)

Strengthening national resources and capabilities and paraprofessionals skills

· Program personnel- professionals awareness

· Create projects

· Training (Kenya)

· Increase teaching materials

· Improve infrastructure (Nigeria)

· Strengthening

· Experimental demonstration

Strengthening public awareness and stimulating demand

· Policymakers

Public and government

Social marketing Jamaica)

· Public

· Education professionals

· Create awareness

· Disseminating information

· Build political will


· Increase demand

· Change attitudes

Developing supportive legal frameworks

· Working women with young children awareness of standards

Public and government

· Workplace day care facilities(Brazil)

· Increase

· Working children rights end legal environmental resources (India)

· Protective

· Increase leave adoption of benefits legislation (Colombia) recommended

· Maternal and breastfeeding for working mothers

Supporting by the International Labour


· Increase monitoring of and compliance with international human rights conventions outside the home. Some mothers earn income by establishing child care facilities for community children in their homes. Examples include the Colombia Community Child Care and Nutrition and Promesa projects and the Bolivia Integrated Child Development Project.

Developing national child care and family policies family-sensitive employment

· Families with young children

Government, employers

· Innovative public private arrangements (India, Colombia)

· Encourage

· Tax incentives for practices formal and quasiformal private enterprises

Source: Adapted from Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development 1992, p. 22.

· Strengthening institutional resources and capacity. This approach seeks to strengthen the institutions responsible for implementing early child interventions. Examples include Kenya's early education centers, and World Bank-supported projects in Bolivia, Mexico, and Nigeria that have as a secondary objective strengthening institutional capacity for early child development interventions.

· Building public awareness and strengthening demand. This approach focuses on producing and disseminating the information needed to create awareness of-and demand for-early childhood services. It targets parents, community leaders, and policymakers-as in Nigeria's Development Communications Project.