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close this bookClinical Guidelines and Treatment Manual (Médecins Sans Frontières, 1993)
close this folderChapter 4 - Skin conditions
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentDermatology
View the documentImpetigo and other purulent dermatoses
View the documentHerpes simplex, Herpes zoster
View the documentScabies
View the documentLeg ulcer
View the documentFungal infection
View the documentAnthrax
View the documentOther skin conditions
View the documentEndemic syphilis, Yaws & Pinta
View the documentLeprosy

Anthrax

A bacterial zoonosis of herbivorous mammals that is transmitted to humans by skin contact with carcasses or animal products, and rarely by ingestion of undercooked infected meat.

Clinical features

- Pustule that develops into a black eschar surrounded by vesicles and an inflamed area, with regional adenopathy. Painless.

- May cause fatal septicemia.

- Intestinal and pulmonary forms exist.

Treatment (hospital)

penicillin: PPF(or procain penicilline) IM
Adult : 4 MU / d in a single injection x 5 days
Child : 100,000 U/kg/d in a single injection x 5 days
or
penicillin V
Adult: 4 MU/d divided in 3 doses x 7 days
Child : 100,000 U/kg/d divided in 3 doses x 7 days
or
chloramphenicol per os
Adult: 1.5-2 g/ d divided in 3 doses x 7 days
Child : 75 mg/kg/d divided in 3 doses x 7 days
or
tetracycline per os
Adult : 1.5-2 g/d divided in 3-4 doses x 7 days
Child > 8 years: 50 mg/kg/d divided in 3-4 doses x 7 days

Prevention

Look for the source of contamination and take measures to prevent further transmission.