[* This section is inspired by and
elaborates upon an article published in 1988 in French by Grodos: De l'aide
d'urgence aux soins de santé primaires. Difficultés, pièges, enjeux. (From
emergency aid to primary health care. Difficulties, pitfalls,
Much has been written on development, disaster and
emergency,51,53 and on the 'continuum' in-between.
The contexts are different, and, not surprisingly, the 'paradigm' underlying
primary health care (PHC) is distinct from the one that underlies emergency
medical assistance (EMA). These paradigms determine the characteristics of
health care and of health services. They also determine strategic aspects, such
as sustainability, the role of different actors and accountability.
[ Some authors define rehabilitation
and reconstruction as distinct stages in a disaster - development continuum.
Others have challenged this.94,209-214 This debate is rich in
ambiguous terms, such as chronic emergencies, protracted emergencies,
developmental relief, welfare relief, and humanitarian aid. One could also argue
for a classification of situations in a stable - unstable continuum. However,
this chapter uses only development, disaster & emergency, as they are most
widely used, although not always unambiguously