|Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases (Peace Corps, 1985, 566 pages)|
|Module Six: Community health education|
|Session 17 - Selecting and using visual aids to promote CDD|
Pictures and other visual aids make communication and learning about diarrheal diseases control easier and more interesting by translating abstract ideas into more concrete familiar forms that relate to the experience of the learners. In Session 16 (Selecting and Using Nonformal Education Techniques) participants practiced combining visual aids with nonformal techniques. In this session they focus on visual aids, looking at different ways that they can use these aids in health education to promote the control of diarrheal diseases, particularly through ORT. They review cultural, educational and design criteria for selecting visual aids. They use these criteria to select visual aids for health education sessions in the project plans developed in Session 15 (Planning a Health Education Project on CDD).
· To describe ways that visual aids can be used to help learning and understanding.
(Step 1, 2)
· To select appropriate visual aids to promote activities to control diarrheal diseases, using criteria stated during the session.
- Teaching and Learning With Visual Aids
- Audiovisual/Communications Teaching Aids Teaching Aids Resource Packet P8
- Helping Health Workers Learn, Chapter 11
- Bridging the Gap
- On the People's Wavelengths Communications for Social Change, (UNICEF News 114/4)
- 17A Ways Visual Aids Help People Learn and Remember
- 17B Why Pictures Fall to Convey Ideas
- 17C Design Considerations
- 17D Using Pictures to Communicate Effectively
- 17A Why Use Visual Aids?
- 17B Villagers Teaching Us to Teach them
- 17C Examples of Teaching Situations
Examples of as many different kinds of visual aids as possible. Newsprint, markers, pencils, paper.
Prior to the session ask participants to look through Chapter 11 of Helping Health Workers Learn (Making and Using Teaching aids. and identify at least one new use of visual aids. that they would like to try out during this training course.
Ask three participants to work with you to prepare and demonstrate effective uses of visual aids. In the demonstration focus one creative uses of visual aids; appropriate selection of visual aids. and showing skill in the actual handling of the material, such as timing (when to show a visual) and making sure it can be seen.
Prior to the training, ask participants to bring visual aids. that they have developed and used. Also ask a few people to locate examples of different kinds of visual aids. on topics related to the control of diarrheal diseases and to arrange or display them in the training room. Include in the display all the visual aids. used in the training program thusfar. Assign this task enough in advance to enable them to visit local agencies to collect or borrow visual aids. If the location of the training site is too far from such agencies, collect these materials yourself prior to the training. Get as many locally designed and produced materials as possible and, where available, get multiple copies to give to the participants for their health education activities.
If you plan to use the Optional Step on Selecting Nell Designed Pictures (located at the end of the Procedure section) ask two people to help you find or prepare visual aids. that illustrate the design considerations shown in Handout 17C (Design Considerations). Ask for one good and one bad example for each consideration.
Trainer Attachment 17A Includes a short activity that you can use
to introduce this session if time allows.
Step 1 (60 min)
Ways Visual Aids Help People Learn and Remember
Introduce the session by reviewing the objectives and pointing out the display of visual aids. With the help of the participants who prepared with you, demonstrate at least three different uses of visual aids. for specific teaching situations dealing with the control of diarrheal diseases. For each demonstration, state the objective, and describe the target group. After each one, discuss questions such as the following:
- What did you like best about the ways visual aids. were used here?
- What did you like least?
- What different ways could you use this visual aid?
- Has the timing (when the visual aids were used in the session) and handling skillful and effective?
After all the demonstrations are finished, facilitate a discussion using the following kinds of questions:
- What kinds of information are best communicated using visual aids?
- How can visual aids. strengthen nonformal education techniques?
- Can visual aids. stand on their own for communicating health messages?
- What are some examples of effective use of visual aids. during this training program? How have you used visual aids.
You may want to begin this session with the activity described in Trainer Attachment 17A (Why Use Visual Aids?).
Be sure that you demonstrate the use of visual aids. when they are needed and not Just added because someone wants to use a visual aid. The visual aids. should be appropriate for the objectives, the learners, and communicate effectively (applying the Design Considerations in Handout 17C). Do short, focused demonstrations.
Include combinations of visual aids and nonformal education techniques to increase the participation of the learners, to identify and solve problems, evaluate projects and learning-by-doing as well as communicating health information. Handout 17A (Nays Visual Aids Help People Learn and Remember) and Helping Health Workers Learn offer many ideas.
The outcome of the discussion should be answers to the questions: - Why use visual aids? When should I use visual aids?
You can also write and discuss this Chinese proverb: "I hear I
forget' I see I remember; if I do it I know it".
Step 2 (15 min)
Gallery Tour of Visual aids.
Give participants 15 minutes to make a "gallery tour" of the visual aids. arranged in the display. Ask then to choose a partner for the "tour". Have the partners discuss ways to use these materials in their work in controlling diarrheal diseases and share creative ways that they have used visual aids. In the past. Encourage them to pick up the visual aids. and think about the ideas for using visual aids. that they read about in Helping Health Workers Learn. At the end of tints activity give them Handout 17A (Ways Visual Aids Help People Learn and Remember) as a reference.
Step 3 (20 min)
Selecting Visual Aids for the Local Community
Briefly summarize and discuss Trainer Attachment 17B (Villagers Teaching Us to Teach Thea) or a similar example to highlight the importance of involving the community in selecting (or developing) and using pictures for health education.
Ask the participants to agree on three or four main criteria to use in selecting visual aids. Ask someone to summarize these on newsprint for future use. After the discussion Distribute Handout 17B (Why Pictures Fall to Convey Ideas) as a reference,
Some of ideas that should come out of the discussion include:
- Consider local beliefs, customs, design preferences, meaning associated with colors, and familiar things such as clothing, houses, and household goods.
The following are the most important criteria for selecting visual aids.
- Skills, knowledge, attitudes, or organization stated in your health education objectives are accomplished more effectively and easily using visual aids.
If participants have a special interest in developing visual aids.
you may want to use the Optional Step on Selecting Nell Designed Visual Aids
after Step 3.
Step 4 (30 min.)
Practice Selecting Visual Aids
Divide into the pairs that developed project plans. Ask each pair to apply what they have Just learned about cultural and design considerations for visual aids and techniques, along with their project objectives, to decide and discuss how they would select visual aids for their target group for one health education session in that project.
Ask them to select visual aids if appropriate, from those displayed in the room and be prepared to explain their choice to the other groups. If the visual aids in the room are inappropriate, ask them to suggest what, if any, visual aids they plan to make for the session and explain why they need them.
It you find that participants need some practice in selecting
visual aids before starting their own sessions, divide them into three or more
groups and assign teaching situations such as those described in Trainer
Attachment 17C (Examples of Teaching Situations). Have each group select visual
aids and nonformal education techniques for the assigned situations and present
the session to the other groups. Allow additional time for this
Step 5 (40 min.)
Sharing Visual Aids Selections
Reconvene the large group. Ask each small group to describe their project objective, target group and the session during which they will use the visual aids. Then have them show the visual aids selected and explain why they were chosen.
After each report have the others assess the criteria used to select the visual Aids and how well the visual aids fit the criteria. Encourage suggestions for other possible combinations of nonformal education techniques and visual aids for each session. At the end of the discussion distribute Handout 17D (Using Pictures to Communicate Effectively) as supplementary reading.
Close the session by explaining that they will be applying these skills in selecting and using visual aids in Session 19 (Designing and Evaluating Health Education Sessions) and in their final project presentations (Session 22).
Optional Step (20 min)
Selecting Well Designed Visual Aids
Show the group the pairs of pictures prepared earlier to illustrate the design considerations in Handout 17C (Design Considerations). For each pair of pictures, ask the group which picture is better? When they decide, ask them what makes one picture better than the other. Ask someone to make up a simple rule for choosing well-designed visual aids based on each comparison.
Distribute Handout 17C (Design Considerations) as a summary. Briefly discuss how the list on the wall is similar to the list of considerations in the handout.
Use this optional step after Step 3.
The outcome of the discussion should be a list of rules about what makes a visual aid communicate well. Hake sure that the points on Handout 17C (Design Considerations) come out in the discussion.
Emphasize the importance of simplicity. Note that the most common error in visual Aids is including too much information. A good guideline is to include only one main idea in a picture. Also make it clear that the rule of thumb, "Use simple visual messages", does not assume a simple minded target audience. Nor does it imply omitting important information. Instead it means to identify what is necessary, as opposed to "nice" to know and to present that information step-by-step, one idea at a time.
If participants have already covered these concepts in preservice
or other training, simplify this step as follows. Ask one of the participants to
summarize what makes a visual aid communicate effectively. Have them demonstrate
by comparing a picture that communicates effectively with one that does not,
pointing to the parts of the pictures that illustrate their "rules of thumb" for