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close this bookTraining Manual in Combatting Childhood Communicable Diseases Part I (Peace Corps, 1985, 579 pages)
close this folderModule 4: Health education
close this folderSession 23: Adult learning and nonformal education techniques
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentHandout 23A: The experiential learning cycle
View the documentHandout 23B: Using pictures to stimulate discussion
View the documentHandout 23C: Guidelines for using group discussion
View the documentHandout 23D: Guidelines for demonstration
View the documentHandout 23E: Training techniques
View the documentTrainer Attachment 23A: Role play on how adults learn best
View the documentTrainer Attachment 23B: Deciding when id use experiential learning
View the documentTrainer Attachment 23C: Can puppets be effective communicators?
View the documentTrainer Attachment 23D: ''Love him and make him learn''
View the documentTrainer Attachment 23E: Some thoughts on the use of non-formal education in the real world
View the documentTrainer Attachment 23F: Comparison of teacher-centered and learner-centered education approach

Handout 23C: Guidelines for using group discussion


- Decide on your objective for the discussion.
- Prepare same open questions you can ask to start the discussion.
- Collect the visual aids you will use to begin the discussion.
- Practice using the visual aids if this is necessary.
- Find out as much as you can about the participants.
- Look at the location where the discussion will take place.
- Arrange the seating to increase interaction.

Conduct the Discussion

- Start on time.

- Try to make the group feel at ease.

- State your general purpose of the discussion. (It is assumed the you have specific learning objectives and this techniques is appropriate.) Ask if it fits their needs.

- Ask participants what are their objectives and explain how they will be covered in the discussion.

- Introduce the topic clearly and concisely.

- Explain the discussion procedures and define its limits.

- Encourage participation by all members.

- Control the over-talkative member.

- Draw out the shy member.

- Don't allow one or more members to monopolize.

- Deal tactfully with irrelevant contributions.

- Avoid personal arguments.

- Keep the discussion moving.

- Keep the discussion on the subject.

- Summarize frequently.

- Use audio-visual aids if available.

- The best discussion is often one in which the trainer talks only about 20 percent of the time.

Summarize the Discussion

- Review the highlights of the discussion.
- Review the conclusions which have been reached.
- Make clear what has been accomplished by the discussion.
- Restate any minority viewpoint.
- Get agreement for any action proposed.


- Watch learners during the discussion to be sure that they remain interested, not bored and restless.

- Ask learners how well they think the objective of the discussion was accomplished.

- How well do you feel the objective of the discussion was met?

(Adapted from: Teaching and Learning with Visual Aids.)