|Making Motherhood Safe (World Bank, 1993, 161 pages)|
World Bank Discussion Papers
Marjorie A. Koblinsky
with contributions from
Patricia Daly, Cleone Rooney,
Charlotte Leighton, Marcia Griffiths,
A. A. Zahidul Huque, and Barbara Kwast
The World Bank Washington, D.C.
Copyright ©:, 1993 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.
All rights reserved
Manufactured in the United States of America
First printing May 1993
Second printing October 1994
Discussion Papers present results of country analysis or research that are circulated to encourage discussion and comment within the development community. To present these results with the least possible delay, the typescript of this paper has not been prepared in accordance with the procedures appropriate to formal printed texts, and the World Bank accepts no responsibility for errors. Some sources cited in this paper may be informal documents that are not readily available.
The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the author(s) and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgement on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The material in this publication is copyrighted. Requests for permission to reproduce portions of it should be sent to the Office of the Publisher at the address shown in the copyright notice above. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally give permission promptly and, when the reproduction is for non-commercial purposes, without asking a fee. Permission to copy portions for classroom use is granted through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., Suite 910, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, Massachusetts 01923, U.S.A.
The complete backlist of publications from the World Bank is shown in the annual Index of Publications, which contains an alphabetical title list (with full ordering information) and indexes of subjects, authors, and countries and regions. The latest edition is available free of charge from the Distribution Unit, Office of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A., or from Publications, The World Bank, 66, avenue d'léna, 75116 Paris, France.
Anne Tinker is a health specialist in the World Bank's Population, Health, and Nutrition Department. Marjorie A. Koblinsky was a consultant to the department.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Tinker, Anne G.
Making motherhood safe / Anne Tinker, Marjorie A. Koblinsky, with
contributions from Patricia Daly . . . [et al.].
p. cm. - (world Bank discussion papers; 202)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Maternal health services.
I. Koblinsky, Marjorie A.
II. Daly, Patricia.
362.1'982 - dc20 93-19573
RECENT WORLD BANK TECHNICAL PAPERS
No. 251 Sharma, Rietbergen, Heimo, and Pa tel. A Strategy for the Forest Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa
No. 252 The World Bank/FAO/UNIDO/lndustry Fertilizer Working Group, World and Regional Supply and Demand Balances for Nitrogen, Phosphate, and Potash, 1992/93-1998/99
No. 253 Jensen and Malter, Protected Agriculture: A Global Review
No. 254 Frischtak, Governance Capacity and Economic Reform in Developing Countries
No. 255 Mohan, editor, Bibliography of Publications: Technical Department, Africa Region, July 1987 to April 1994
No. 256 Campbell, Design and Operation of Smallholder Irrigation in South Asia
No. 258 De Geyndt, Managing the Quality of Health Care in Developing Countries
No. 259 Chaudry, Reid, and Malik, editors, Civil Service Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of a Conference
No. 260 Humphrey, Payment Systems: Principles, Practice, and Improvements
No. 261 Lynch, Provision for Children with Special Educational Needs in the Asia Region
No. 262 Lee and Bobadilla, Health Statistics for the Americas
No. 263 Le Moigne, Subramanian, Xie, and Giltner, editors, A Guide to the Formulation of Water Resources Strategy
No. 264 Miller and Jones, Organic and Compost-Based Growing Media for Tree Seedling Nurseries
No. 265 Viswanath, Building Partnerships for Poverty Reduction: The Participatory Project Planning Approach of the Women's Enterprise Management Training Outreach Program (WEMTOP)
No. 266 Hill and Bender, Developing the Regulatory Environment for Competitive Agricultural Markets
No. 267 Valdés and Schaeffer, Surveillance of Agricultural Prices and Trade: A Handbook for the Dominican Republic
No. 268 Valdés and Schaeffer, Surveillance of Agricultural Prices and Trade: A Handbook for Colombia
No. 269 Scheierling, Overcoming Agricultural Pollution of Water: The Challenge of Integrating Agricultural and Environmental Policies in the European Union
No. 270 Banerjee, Rehabilitation of Degraded Forests in Asia
No. 271 Ahmed, Technological Development and Pollution Abatement: A Study of How Enterprises Are Finding Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons
No. 272 Greaney and Kellaghan, Equity Issues in Public Examinations in Developing Countries
No. 273 Grimshaw and Helfer, editors, Vetiver Grass for Soil and Water Conservation, Land Rehabilitation, and Embankment Stabilization: A Collection of Papers and Newsletters Compiled by the Vetiver Network
No. 274 Govindaraj, Murray, and Chellaraj, Health Expenditures in Latin America
No. 275 Heggie, Management and Financing of Roads: An Agenda for Reform
No. 276 Johnson, Quality Review Schemes for Auditors: Their Potential for Sub-Saharan Africa
No. 277 Convery, Applying Environmental Economics in Africa
No. 278 Wijetilleke and Karunaratne, Air Quality Management: Considerations for Developing Countries
No. 279 Anderson and Ahmed, The Case for Solar Energy Investments
No. 280 Rowat, Malik, and Dakolias, Judicial Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of a World Bank Conference
No. 281 Shen and Contreras-Hermosilla, Environmental and Economic Issues in Forestry: Selected Case Studies in Asia
No. 282 Kim and Benton, Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP)
No. 283 Jacobsen, Scobie and Duncan, Statutory Intervention in Agricultural Marketing: A New Zealand Perspective
No. 284 Valdés and Schaeffer in collaboration with Roldos and Chiara, Surveillance of Agricultural Price and Trade Policies: A Handbook for Uruguay
No. 285 Brehrn and Castro, The Market for Water Rights in Chile: Major Issues
No. 286 Tavoulareas and Charpentier, Clean Coal Technologies for Developing Countries
No. 287 Giliham, Bell, Arin, Matthews, Rumeur, and Hearn, Cotton Production Prospects for tire Next Decade
No. 288 Biggs, Shaw, and Srivastiva, Technological Capabilities and Learning in African Enterprises
No. 289 Dinar, Seidl, Olem, Jorden, Duda, and Johnson, Restoring and Protecting the World's Lakes and Reservoirs
No. 290 Weijenberg, Dagg, Kampen Kalunda, Mailu, Ketema, Navarro, and Abdi Noor, Strengthening National Agricultural Research Systems in Eastern and Central Africa: A Framework for Action
No. 291 Valdés and Schaeffer in collaboration with Errazuriz and Francisco, SurveilIance of Agricultural Price and Trade Policies: A Handbook for Chile
No. 292 Gorriz, Subramanian, and Simas, Irrigation Management Transfer in Mexico: Process and Progress
No. 293 Preker and Feachem, Market Mechanisms and the Health Sector in Central and Eastern Europe
No. 294 Valdés and Schaeffer in collaboration with Sturzenegger and Bebczuk, Surveillance of Agricultural Price and Trade Policies: A Handbook for Argentina
No. 295 Pohl, Jedrzejczak, and Anderson, Creating Capital Markets in Central and Eastern Europe
No. 296 Stassen, Small-Scale Biomass Gasifiers for Heat and Power: A Global Review
No. 297 Bulatao, Key Indicators for Family Planning Projects
No. 298 Odaga and Heneveld, Girls and Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Analysis to Action
No. 299 Tamale, Jones, and Pswarayi-Riddihough, Technologies Related to Participatory Forestry in Tropical and Subtropical Countries
No. 300 Oram and de Haan, Technologies for Rainfed Agriculture in Mediterranean Climates: A Review of World Bank Experiences
No. 301 Edited by Mohan, Bibliography of Publications: Technical Department, Africa Region, July 1987 to April 1995
No. 302 Baldry, Calamari, and Yaméogo, Environmental Impact Assessment of Settlement and Development in the Upper Léraba Basin
No. 303 Heneveld and Craig, Schools Count: World Bank Project Designs and the Quality of Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa
No. 304 Foley, Photovoltaic Applications in Rural Areas of the Developing World
No. 305 Johnson, Education and Training of Accountants in Sub-Saharan Anglophone Africa
No. 306 Muir and Saba, Improving State Enterprise Performance: The Role of Internal and External Incentives
No. 307 Narayan, Toward Participatory Research
No. 308 Adamson and others, Energy Use, Air Pollution, and Environmental Policy in Krakow: Can Economic Incentives Really Help?
No. 309 The World Bank/FOA/UNIDO/lndustry Fertilizer Working Group, World and Regional Supply and Demand Balances for Nitrogen, Phosphate, and Potash, 1993/94-1999/2000
No. 310 Edited by Elder and Cooley, Sustainable Settlement and Development of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme Area: Proceedings of a Ministerial Meeting.
No. 311 Webster, Riopelle and Chidzero, World Bank Lending for Small Enterprises 1989-1993
No. 312 Benoit, Project Finance at the World Bank: An Overview of Policies and Instruments
No. 313 Kapur, Airport Infrastructure. The Emerging Role of the Private Sector
No. 314 Valdés, Schaefferin collaboration with Ramos, Surveillance of Agricultural Price and Trade Policies: A Handbook for Ecuador
No. 316 Schware and Kimberley, Information Technology and National Trade Facilitation: Making the Most of Global Trade
No. 317 Schware and Kimberley, Information Technology and National Trade Facilitation. Guide to Best Practice
No. 318 Taylor, Boukambou, Dahniya, Ouayogode, Ayling, Abdi Noor, and Toure, Strengthening National Agricultural Research Systems in the Humid and Sub-humid Zones of West and Central Africa: A Framework for Action
No. 320 Srivastava, Lambert and Vietmeyer, Medicinal Plants: An Expanding Role in Development
No. 321 Srivastava, Smith, and Forno, Biodiversity and Agriculture: Implications for Conservation and Development
No. 322 Charles M. Peters, The Ecology and Management of Non-Timber Forest Resources
No. 323 Edited by Dominique Pannier, Corporate Governance of Public Enterprises in Transitional Economies
No. 324 Cabraal, Cosgrove-Davies, and Schaeffer, Best Practices for Photovoltaic Household Electrification Programs
No. 325 Bacon, Besant-Jones, and Heidarian, Estimating Construction Costs and Schedules: Experience with Power Generation Projects in Developing Countries