|Oral Rehydration Therapy and the Control of Diarrheal Diseases (Peace Corps, 1985, 566 pages)|
|Module Six: Community health education|
|Session 18 - adapting and pretesting health education materials on ORT for controlling diarrheal diseases|
Often the visual aids and other health education materials needed for a particular health education session do not exist or those available are not appropriate for the learners. Using the simple tracing techniques practiced in this session, participants adapt visual Aids on, ORT or related CDD topics, to fit local needs. They also discuss adapting written or spoken health messages. After identifying or developing health education materials they try them out with people in the local community similar to the target group for whom the materials are intended. This pretest assures that the materials convey the intended message and interest the learners. It also provides another way to learn more about the community.
· To use tracing and sketching to adapt a visual aid on a CDD topic for use in the local community.
· To pretest the adapted visual aid with members of the local community.
- Teaching and Learning With Visual Aids pp. 191-197 and 223-254.
- Audiovisual/Communication Teaching aids Resource Packet (Peace Corps)
- Bridging the Gap
- Breast Feeding and Weaning Resource Packet (Peace Corps)
- Visual aids on Sanitation for Africa (Peace Corps)
- Healthing Health Workers Learn Chapter 12
- 18A Spreading Good Ideas
- 18B Child to Child Health Booklet
- 18C Visual Aids: Do They Help or Hinder?
- 18D Pretest Report Form
- 18A Rainy Season Feeding Messages
- 18B Tracing Techniques to Adapt Visual Aids
- 18C How to Pretest
- 18D Role Play on Pretesting
Newsprint and markers, pictures to adapt, paper for drawing, thin paper for tracing, pencils, paint or crayons, props for the role play.
Before the session ask someone to prepare a 15-minute activity using Trainer Attachment 18A (Rainy Season Feeding Messages). The main emphasis should be why and how adaptation of the messages was done in the case described.
Prior to the session ask someone to prepare and present tracing and sketching techniques for adapting visual Aids using Trainer Attachment 18A (Tracing Techniques for Adapting Visual aids and Handout 16D (Guidelines for Demonstrations). It some participants are interested in drawing, try to organize peer teaching by one of the participants with drawing skills, using Helping Health Workers Learn, Chapter 12 (Learning to Make and Use Pictures). Pictures are provided for the adaptation practice, during Step 3, in Handout 16B (Child to Child Health Booklet). You may prefer to substitute other visual Aids Breastfeeding and Weaning (Resource Packet P 12) or Visual aids on Sanitation for Africa include many pictures that could be used in this activity and are available through ICE.
Ask two or three people to prepare to do a ten-minute role play demonstrating pretesting. Work with them as they practice the techniques described in Handout 18A (Visual Aids: Do They Help or Hinder?) Trainer Attachment 18C (How to Pretest) and develop the roles in Trainer Attachment 18D (Role Play on Pretesting Pictures), to make certain that the role play will demonstrate correct pretesting techniques.
Invite several people from the local community (or local people
who work in the training center) to visit the session for 30 minutes (during
step 4) to give their opinions about some visual aids Also try to arrange for
separate rooms to conduct the pretest interviews, so that the groups do not
distract each other. Or, if you use the child to child materials face Handout
18B, arrange for pretesting and health education activities in the local
Step 1 (20 min)
Discussion on Adapting Visual aids
Introduce the session using ideas from Handout 18A (Spreading Good Ideas). Ask the pre-assigned person to facilitate the activity he or she prepared using Trainer Attachment 18A (Rainy Season Feeding Messages). The activity should include a discussion of questions such as :
- What aspects of pictures are likely to require adaptation?
- What changes in spoken or written messages accompanying the pictures are most often needed?
- How do you decide when and what to adapt?
Distribute copies of the visual Aids that you have selected for participants to adapt, such as Handout 18B (Child to Child Health Booklet). Give them a chance to look at this material then discuss what specific adaptations they should make so they can use this material in their communities.
Distribute Handout 18A (Spreading Good Ideas) as supplementary reading.
If possible, show some examples of pictures that have been adapted and describe why and how they were adapted. The example below was taken from a counseling book developed for use in the United States and adapted for use in West Africa by changing the facial features and clothing.
Some of the points that should come out of the discussion include:
- changing clothing, hairstyle, facial features, gestures to resemble local people
Refer to the discussion of cultural considerations in Session 17
(Selecting and Using Visual Aids). Suggest that participants refer to Handouts
17B (Why Pictures Fall to Communicate) and 17D (Using Pictures to Communicate
Effectively) for additional ideas about adapting health education
Step 2 (35 min.)
Demonstration on Using Tracing to Adapt
Ask the pre-selected person to demonstrate how to use tracing to adapt visual Aids The demonstrator should assign the group a tracing exercise like those in Trainer Attachment 18B (Tracing Techniques for Adapting Visual Aids to provide practice on this technique. The trainer and the demonstrator should move around the group and help anyone having difficulty.
An effective way to introduce the tracing demonstration is to show the group a picture that you traced and claim that you drew the picture in five minutes. When they ask how you became such a great artist you explain that you "cheated." that is you traced the picture from a photograph and modified it slightly.
When demonstrating tracing it is important to note that you have to decide how much detail to copy from the original picture as is explained in Trainer Attachment 18B (Tracing Techniques for Adapting Visual aids Also urge Trainees to clip or tape the tracing paper to the picture that they are copying so that the paper does not move around while they are drawing.
People usually vary a great deal in how quickly they trace and
sketch. Have additional exercises for those who finish early. For example they
can try out other drawing techniques shown in Helping Health Workers
Learn, Chapter 12.
Step 3 (60 min.)
Practice Adapting Visual Aids
Ask each person to adapt the visual aid, that you handed out earlier, for a specific group of learners in the co m unity and for a specific health education objective.
Advise participants to begin by roughly sketching or making notes on the changes that they want to make in the visual aid before they begin tracing and sketching the final version. Give thee time to work on the assignment. Hove around the room and assist anyone who is having difficulty.
If you use Handout 18A (Child to Child Health Booklet) for the
adaptation practice, you can assign different parts of the booklet to different
people to adapt and pretest. By the end of the session participants will have a
complete booklet adapted for use in child to child activities in their
Step 4 (25 min.)
Pretesting Role Play
Ask the three participants to present the pretesting role play that they prepared before the session. Ask participants to watch carefully hoe the role players conduct the pretest so that they will be able to pretest their own visual Aids later in the session. After the role play, lead a discussion on how to pretest materials. Ask participants to develop a list of steps to follow. Ask someone to write the steps on newsprint. Suggest that everyone copy the list for use later in the session.
If possible, do the demonstration of pretesting with community members instead of the role play. If you used Handout 18 (Child to Child Health Booklet) for the adaptation practice, demonstrate and later have participants pretest these materials with children in the local school.
Use your reading of Trainer Attachment 18C (How to Pretest) as a guide for the discussion. Ask participants to recall the techniques they practiced in Session 11 (Methods for Learning About the Community).
Some of the important points that should appear on the list include:
- Greet the person or persons appropriately.
Step 5 (45 min.)
Pretesting Materials with Community Members
Distribute Handout 18D (Pretest Report Form) and give participants a chance to lock at it, ask questions, and modify the form. Divide the participants into four groups that will work together in pretesting. Give the groups five minutes to select one or two of the visual aid adaptations to use in this activity. Explain that they will be reporting the results of the pretest to the other groups.
When doing pretest, one member of the small group should verve as interviewer and another as recorder, while the others observe. Have the groups pretest the adaptation first, then the original visual aid. Each group should try out these materials with at least two visitors.
If time allows, arrange to have the participants pretest the visual aid in the community. Ask each group to pretest their poster with two different people similar to those for whom it is intended.
If the pretesting takes place in the training center, arrange separate rooms for each of the groups to conduct their interviews or have them work in different corners of the room so that they do not distract each other.
Spend some time with each of the groups but do not interfere with the interview. Note some good interviewing techniques and interesting outcomes that you can mention during the discussion of the pretests.
After participants have worked with one community visitor for 15 minutes, have them rotate and spend the last 15 minutes interviewing different second visitor.
If the participants adapted the child to child health booklet, try
to arrange for pretesting in the local school. If possible, combine the pretest
with a health education activity for the children on one of the topics in the
booklet. Another option is to ask the children to adapt the pictures with their
own drawings, working with the participants.
Step 6 (40 min.)
Discussion of the Pretesting Experience
Ask each group to give a brief report on what they learned from the pretesting interview. Lead a large group discussion of questions such as the following:
- What did you learn about how well the visual aid communicated the intended massage?
- What did you learn about how interesting the visual aid was to the community members?
- How did your ideas about what needed to be adapted in the original poster compare with those of community members?
- What else did you learn about the community through conducting the pretest?
- What did you find that was important that you didn't expect from pretesting the posters
- What other kinds of media, messages and techniques could be pretested in a similar way!
It some participants are involved in radio health education, they may prefer to try out spot announcements instead of a picture. Others may want to try out a song or a puppet show.
Encourage participants to make the proposed changes in their visual aids if possible allow time for this and arrange a place on the wall for a gallery of visual aid adaptations.
If the group adapted the child to child booklet, arrange for a
chance for some participants to return to try out the adapted booklet with the