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close this bookStrengthening the Family - Implications for International Development (United Nations University - UNU, 1991, 268 pages)
View the document(introductory text...)
close this folderIntroduction and purpose
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentGoals
View the documentProject scope
View the documentNeed for a family focus
View the documentDefinitions of the family and its functions
View the documentPotential multiplier effects for family interventions
View the documentSeeking development from within each culture
View the documentOrganization and overview
View the documentReferences
close this folderSocial change and the family
View the documentSociological, anthropological, and historical perspectives
View the documentThe modern family
View the documentPositive links between socio-economic development and the modern family
View the documentNegative effects of development on the family and society
View the documentChanges in the late- and post-industrial era
View the documentAt the threshold of profound change
View the documentThe post-modern family
View the documentReach of post-modern influences into the developing world
View the documentLessons from the social change literature for family social health
View the documentA post-modern approach to progress
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close this folderEconomic perspectives on the family
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentDefinitions of the family and household
View the documentThe new home economics
View the documentConcepts in the analysis of household/family behaviour
View the documentMethods for predicting the impact of development inputs on families
View the documentFindings relevant to the family
View the documentInsights regarding family social wellness
View the documentReferences
close this folderPsychological approaches to the family
View the documentThe vastness of the field
View the documentThe family as an entity
View the documentThe family from a child development perspective
View the documentThe family both as an entity in itself and as the producer of developmental and welfare outcomes of its members
View the documentFamily social wellness
View the documentReferences
close this folderPerspectives from international development assistance and from family programmes
View the documentThe flagship role of early childhood development programmes
View the documentThe UNICEF conceptual framework
View the documentFamily factors and programmes that protect high-risk children
View the documentThe effects of early intervention programmes
View the documentImpacts on family functioning or social health
View the documentReferences
close this folderThe Javanese family
View the documentIntroduction to the Javanese model
View the documentEast Asian relationship to socio-economic development
View the documentAn overview of Java
View the documentConcepts of individual, family, and community
View the documentThe family arrangements
View the documentThe status of women in the javanese family
View the documentThe Javanese value of children
View the documentMarital relationships
View the documentRelationships in the family
View the documentSocial network and family support system
View the documentJavanese concept of life
View the documentTeaching manners and values
View the documentSocial implications of the javanese value system
View the documentChallenges for transition
View the documentNotes
View the documentReferences
close this folderThe Yoruba family: Kinship, socialization, and child development
View the documentIntroduction to the yoruba model
View the documentThe Yoruba family
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close this folderStructural models of family social health theory
View the documentConceptualization of the family system model
View the documentJustification of the model
View the documentAn application of structural modelling
View the documentJavanese family models
View the documentNigerian family models
View the documentNotes
View the documentAppendix: Variable description and composite index construction
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close this folderSynthesis of concepts and research needs
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentDefinition of well-functioning families or family social health
View the documentImportance of family social health in producing child growth and development
View the documentFamily management
View the documentCaring capacity
View the documentBeliefs, rules, and goals
View the documentFamily boundary maintenance
View the documentProposed research model for measuring family social health
View the documentThe need for further research
View the documentReferences
close this folderPolicy and programme recommendations
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentNeed to alleviate poverty
View the documentNeed to support local family policy initiatives
View the documentAssessment, cultural renewal, and policy formation
View the documentNegative effects of existing policy structures
View the documentNew social realities
View the documentPublic familism
View the documentConfusion over the roles of organized religion, the government, non-governmental organizations, and the family
View the documentSlowing, speeding, or adjusting cultural change
View the documentSeeking answers in post-modern industrial conditions and Asian examples
View the documentSpecific recommendations
View the documentReferences
View the documentContributors

Impacts on family functioning or social health

Child-centred programmes with goals for family functioning

Although most programmes have targeted child outcomes only, Weiss (1988) lists four US programmes that have set goals for family economic selfsufficiency and one for life events stress. Evaluations of these programmes have measured educational advancement, employment and training, different sources of income, rate of subsequent births, quality of life, recent stressful experience, and high-risk status.

Programmes for handicapped children with special needs have pioneered the process of creating individualized family plans for meeting needs for nurturance and emotional support (Walker and Crocker 1988). Family preservation programmes that intervene with crisis counselling and programmes providing social support to teenage parents are models that need further investigation for international application. Weiss (1988) also calls for more investigation of the beneficial impact that family programmes have on service delivery systems, by increasing family-level demand for, and use of, a wide range of services.

Community-based interventions

In reviewing community-based early childhood interventions in the United States, Halpern (1990) concludes that community-based parenting programmes can influence maternal emotional responsiveness, affection, praise, appropriate control, and encouragement of child verbalization. The programmes are most effective when there is a strong focus on improving parenting knowledge and skills. When the focus is a more diffuse attempt to improve the parents' personal adjustment, there tend to be fewer significant gains for either the parent or the child. Halpern concludes that because the influence of these programmes on the child is indirect (mediated through the parent) there tend to be modest short-term effects on child development. We believe that this conclusion underestimates the potential for positive gain.

As noted above, the trend is towards community-based interventions, which most typically are neighbourhood based, employ workers from the local area, and attempt to improve overall family conditions to remove or decrease those circumstances known to be damaging to child development. To meet these goals, model programmes such as Parent-Child Center programs (PCC), the Parent-Child Development Centers (PCDs), and the Child and Family Resource Programs (CFRPs) have been run in the United States.

Myers (1992) looks at community-based programmes in developing countries, pointing out that general improvements in child survival and development hinge on improvements in the community that protects, nourishes, and challenges the young child. Community development approaches in developing countries tend to focus on improving family achievements in the basic task areas of income, food, health, shelter, and sanitation. Community development programmes favour the continuity and sustainability of programmes that are run for the community by the community. Such programmes also have the potential for improving life for everyone in the community, not just the children (Myers 1992).