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close this bookLesotho: A Baseline Study of the Teacher Education System (CIE, 2000, 83 p.)
close this folderChapter Nine: Resources for Teacher Education
View the document9.1 Introduction
View the document9.2 Overall education budget; proportions allocated to primary, secondary, and tertiary levels; costs per student at different levels
View the document9.3 Allocation to teacher education institution - teaching salaries, non-teaching salaries, non-salary expenditure, capital/development expenditure
View the document9.4 Cost Effectiveness of Teacher Training
View the document9.5 Costs per student for different types of training, changes in costs over the last five years
View the document9.6 Ratios of teacher training staff to student trainees on different types of courses in different types of institutions
View the document9.7 Salary Scales for teachers and for teacher trainers
View the document9.8 Number of working days in the training college year
View the document9.9 Conclusion

9.5 Costs per student for different types of training, changes in costs over the last five years

The costs of educating an NTTC student were compared with the costs of educating a student at the university (NUL), at the agricultural college (LAC) and at the polytechnic (LP). Tables 9.4, 9.5, and 9.6 below reflect the differences.

Table 9.4: Total Cost


NTTC

NUL

LAC

LP

1992

4989,400

28912,848

3858,300

3224,400

1993

5594,800

-

2902,200

3554,300

1994

5276,100

47977,522

3463,200

6836,800

1995

7279,500

67202,201

5024,300

6883,700

1996

8506,300

74361,070

4161,200

8193,800

Table 9.5: Enrolment


NTTC

NUL

LAC

LP

1992

723

1200

238

-

1993

751

-

240

628

1994

755

2000

245

597

1995

671

2000

231

606

1996

804

2000

220

597

Table 9.6: Unit cost


NTTC

NUL

LAC

LP

1992

6,901

24,094

16,211

-

1993

7,450

-

12,093

5,660

1994

6,988

23,989

14,136

11,452

1995

10,849

33,601

21,750

11,359

1996

10,580

37,181

18,915

13,725

Even though the cost of teacher education looks reasonable in comparison to other sectors of tertiary education, the cost of producing a highly qualified primary school teacher is quite high. The present situation, with primary teacher education is that it takes an NTTC trainee six years of full-time study to acquire a Diploma qualification: three years full-time study is spent in order to receive PTC, after which two years’ teaching experience has to be acquired for admission into a Diploma programme, which takes another three years of full-time study. This form of training costs the Government dearly as a student on this diploma is entitled to paid study leave at the same time his/her replacement has to be paid by the Government. This has led to serious criticism of the primary teacher education programmes by various stakeholders.

The study by Burke, Sugrue & Williams (1994) found a lot of duplication between PTC, APTC and Diploma programmes. The College is in the process of implementing the recommendations of this study, which proposed that the present PTC, APTC and Diploma in Primary Education programmes be phased out and replaced by a three-year pre-service programme that will issue the award of a diploma in primary teaching. The entry levels of the proposed diploma will be raised to those of comparable institutions. It is envisaged that this rationalization will ensure that the College’s capacity to meet forecasted requirements will be greatly enhanced in a cost effective manner. According to the IDM study the proposed Diploma in Education (Primary) will have a cost saving of 50%.

The Secondary Teachers’ Certificate (STC) programme, like the PTC and APTC, was introduced over twenty years ago and has changed little from that time. STC holders qualify to teach at the junior secondary level in the subjects of their specialization. Many STC holders proceed into the Diploma and Degree programmes of the University so that they can teach at high school level. STC has always been seen as a stepping stone into the University and, as such, it is an expensive pre-entry course for the University. Within the NTTC, the STC is perceived as being inefficient in that a very small number of trainees are attended to by a disproportionately large number of staff. The STC programme does, however, address the needs of the country, especially by offering a double major programme.

It has already been mentioned that NTTC is reforming its secondary programmes. The structure of secondary teacher training will be changed to a programme that will award a diploma qualification. It is hoped that this change will reduce the number of secondary training courses offered at NTTC and thereby increase the efficiency of secondary staff.

The Diploma in Technical Education satisfies the expressed needs of the country in so far as technical and vocational education and training are concerned. While this programme has the highest unit cost of all programmes offered by NTTC it also has the lowest enrolment rate (5% on average).

Table 9.7 shows the total unit cost to the Government of Lesotho per student per programme for the indicated years. These figures are derived from the total student hours required per programme, total lecturer hours per programme, student enrolment per programme and allocated institutional costs per programme (IDM, 1997). To improve the efficiency in providing technical training NTTC is exploring the sharing of teacher trainers with Lerotholi Polytechnic.

Table 9.7: Unit Costs in Maloti by Programme


YEAR

PROGRAMME

1993

1994

1995

1996

PTC

5,991

5,435

7,882

9,032

APTC/DPE

6,345

5,961

13,222

10,296

STC

8,351

7,942

11,623

10,526

DATE

16,825

16,080

22,705

18,118