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close this bookCounting the Cost of Teacher Education: Cost and Quality Issues (CIE, 1999, 37 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentMulti-Site Teacher Education Research Project (MUSTER)
View the documentAbstract
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Some Common Approaches to Initial Teacher Education
View the document3. Some Methodological Issues
View the document4. Analysing Costs
Open this folder and view contents5. A Framework for Exploring Costs Before, During and After Training
View the document6. A Note on Organisational Patterns and Costs
View the document7. Concluding Remark
View the documentReferences
View the documentAppendix 1: Researchable Questions Related to Entry, Training Process, Outcomes and Deployment of New Teachers

Appendix 1: Researchable Questions Related to Entry, Training Process, Outcomes and Deployment of New Teachers



Entry Conditions

How are trainee teachers selected?

What criteria are weighted in the selection process? Academic achievement? Personal qualities? Age and experience?

What evidence is there of the predictive validity of the selection process? What are the selection ratios of applicants to places and what issues does this raise?

Is there "queuing" for selection in the training market?

Are trainees direct entrants from school or have they been teaching as unqualified teaching assistants?

If there is queuing for training places does it increase or decrease costs and selection efficiency?

What are the characteristics of those selected?

What do the academic and professional experience characteristics of those selected indicate about their needs in relation to the desired competencies?

Are the (changing) characteristics of entrants into training reflected in the curriculum they follow and the pedagogic methods used?

Training Process

What are the costs per successful student for different modes of training?

How do costs vary between institutions and modes of training? How do costs compare with those in other forms of post-school education and training?

Are variations in cost per student within a mode of training the result of different patterns of staff utilisation, economies of scale, or variations in non-salary costs?

Should pre-career training models be preferred to in-career models?

Does pre-career training have higher costs than in-career training?

What evidence is there that pre-career training is more effective and efficient than in-career training?

Is more school-based training an attractive option?

Are actual costs likely to be higher or lower?

Do schools have the infrastructure to support training and induction?

How much does teaching practice cost?

Is the cost of practice teaching consistent with the benefits?

Could the benefits be achieved in different ways?

Does distance education offer a viable alternative to College-based training?

Is distance education cheaper per qualified teacher? Does it result in similar outcomes?

How feasible are mixed-mode systems?


Does teacher training increase mastery of subject disciplines?

If it does, how much are the gains and how do they compare with the costs of achieving similar gains in further schooling or higher education?

Is it cost-effective to mix subject upgrading with method and professional development courses?

Does teacher training speed up the acquisition of professional skills?

Does training impart competencies which are different to those arising from experience?

By how much does training accelerate the acquisition of which competencies?

Do newly trained teachers perform differently to untrained teachers?

To what extent do newly trained teachers act differently in organising learning and teaching to untrained teachers working in the same schools?

Do institutional effects overshadow training effects in teacher's performance in the classroom?

What are the success rates on teacher training programmes?

Are the criteria for success set at appropriate levels? Which competencies are the most common cause of lack of success?

To what extent are newly trained teachers regarded as competent by schools and other stakeholders?


How and where are newly trained teachers employed?

Are newly trained teachers directed to posts or does a free market operate?

Would a managed market in placement of newly trained teachers be beneficial?

What support do newly trained teachers receive?

How much is invested in supporting the induction of newly trained teachers?

Should some of the costs of initial training be redirected to continuing professional development of newly trained teachers?

What is the attrition rate for newly trained teachers?

What is the average length of time newly qualified teachers teach after completing training?

Is the ratio of investment in training to the average length of service a balanced investment?


The discussion papers are downloadable from the following web address: