|Teacher Education for Transformation: The Case of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa (CIE, 2002, 73 p.)|
|Chapter 2: The Institutional location of the HDE Programme|
The University of the Western Cape was established in 1960 by the previous South African government as a university college for those classified at that time as Coloured. It was staffed in its early days mainly by those classified White, and identifying with the government policy of apartheid. By the 1980s, however, UWC as an institution had become actively involved in national struggles for democracy and had moved to become a centre recognised internationally for its intellectual and political resistance to apartheid. The Mission Statement of 1982 committed the university to privileging research and teaching to serve the development of Third World communities in South Africa, and in 1987 the then Rector of the university, Professor Jakes Gerwel, wrote:
The institution has developed to a point in its history where it is without doubt the university in this country that has the most unequivocally committed its teaching, research and service activities to an anti-apartheid and to the post-apartheid ideal. Such a position for a University is not an uncomplicated one; it is fraught with tensions and contradictions (quoted in Van den Berg, 1994: 115).
The university has seven faculties, namely, Arts, Dentistry, Community and Health Sciences, Economic and Management Sciences, Law, Science and Education. There are also numerous innovative programmes in the university. A few of these are named here as examples of the social orientation of the university: the Public Health Programme which looks specifically at primary health needs of the country, the School of Government which trains personnel for a new democratic public service and the Mayibuye Centre which houses vast collections on the history of apartheid.
In the Faculty of Education there are three units which reflect the social orientation of the university. The Teacher Inservice Project (TIP) is an organisation development organisation, which works with educational institutions to enhance their capacity for managing change. The Education Policy Unit (EPU) is a leader in the country in research and development for higher education, while the Centre for Adult and Continuing Education (CACE) has a long history of involvement with adult education, particularly programmes to do with combating gender and racial oppression.
The size and composition of the university has changed substantially over time. From about 2 000 students in 1975, there was an increase to about 4 000 in 1980 and 9 000 in 1987 (Van den Berg, 1994). By 1993 the enrolment was 12 554. Significantly, 49 percent of these were women. Approximately 40 percent of students were classified African (Black), as opposed to 1,5 percent ten years earlier (UWC Office for Development and Public Affairs, no date). By the year 2000, however, registration had dropped to 9 686 students. The reasons for this include the fact that, with the demise of apartheid, many students who might have previously attended UWC now moved to previously White universities, while financial restraints continued to dog the families of students traditionally attracted to UWC.
Although the origins of UWC were as a university specifically established for those classified by the apartheid state as Coloured, it is significant to note that the number of Black students now surpasses the number of Coloured students. While figures for the HDE class itself were not available, figures for the whole university indicate that in 2000, there were nearly 5 000 Black students registered and nearly 4 000 Coloured students.
Whereas initially students had been mainly drawn from the communities of the Western Cape, students now come from all over the country. By the early 1990s the medium of instruction and communication had changed from mainly Afrikaans to mainly English. Although English is not the mother tongue of most of the students, it is a common language of the majority of students. This shift in language use has not been an easy transition, giving rise to heated debates about language policies, medium of instruction, the relationship between language and learning, and about the identity of the university. It has also, ironically, contributed to the drop in enrolment as many Afrikaans-speaking Coloured students moved away from UWC as English became more dominant.