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close this bookPrimary Teacher Education in Malawi: Insights into Practice and Policy (CIE, 2002, 144 p.)
close this folderChapter 10: Analysis Of Teacher Supply And Demand
View the document(introduction...)
View the document10.1 Teacher supply
View the document10.2 The demand for new teachers
View the document10.3 A simulation
View the document10.4 Some observations

10.1 Teacher supply

On the supply side, a simple analysis can show some of the characteristics of those likely to be trained as new teachers. In 1997 the total number of pupils graduating from the secondary school system with passes in MSCE was about 8000. The numbers with credits in English and in mathematics were about half of this. This represents the annual pool of students with this level of qualification. The MSCE pass rate appears to have been dropping which will reduce the numbers becoming available. Most of those who succeed are in government schools. The number passing JCE was about 61,000 with the great majority of successful candidates originating in the MCDE schools. Table 10.1 shows this.

Table 10.1: Pass Rates for Different Types of Schools 1997


Number Sitting

Pass Rate (%)

Number Passing


MSCE



Govt

8692

58

5033

Private

4011

43

1713

MCDE

11503

11

1288

Total



8034


JCE



Govt

11507

93

10666

Private

4218

87

3657

MCDE

55868

83

46573

Total



60896

MSCE graduates are qualified for University and College entry. There appear to be about 1500 places available each year. Secondary teacher training has been absorbing small numbers of MSCE graduates. This is planned to grow but it is unclear how many additional teachers will be required since the rate of expansion has not been determined (Ministry of Education 1996). If the Policy and Investment Framework (PIF) is implemented then several thousand new secondary teachers will be needed and these will be drawn from the ranks of MSCE graduates. A proportion of those graduating will not enter the labour market for domestic reasons e.g. marriage. A larger number will seek other forms of employment outside the education system. If 25% of MSCE graduates applied to teacher training about 2000 would be available each year. Of these perhaps half or more would opt for secondary training if it is expanded, leaving no more than about 1000 to enter primary teacher training.

If primary teacher training is to continue on a substantial scale it is clear that in the short to medium term most applicants will continue to be JCE holders10. This was the case with the MIITEP recruitment and remains the case among those teachers who are untrained and not in MIITEP. Whatever training arrangements are devised need to recognise this probable constraint.

10 The pass rate at MSCE further deteriorated in 1999 to average about 11%, thus worsening the supply side problem.