|Disasters Preparedness and Mitigation - Issue No. 08 - July, 1981 (PAHO)|
This article was prepared by Dr. Mário Fernandes, Chief of Animal Health, PAHO.
In developing preparedness and relief plans for disasters and other medical emergencies, countries should make effective use of all resources at their disposal. This includes the infrastructure and human resources of veterinary medicine. The national veterinary medical infrastructure usually possesses the necessary skills, and basic equipment needed in preventive medicine, public health and even medical care. Used for animal health during normal times, these can be turned to serve human needs in the event of natural disaster and other emergencies. It is hence advisable that national veterinary services be included in disaster preparedness planning at all levels.
Most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have a Veterinary Public Health (VPH) unit in the Ministry of Health which serves as the focal point for coordinating and catalyzing activities related to human and animal health. The most visible of these activities are zoonoses control and the protection of foods of animal origin. Although the veterinary services of an agriculture ministry may have an interest in this area, it is not usually one of its priority activities. The Veterinary Public Health unit plays a liaison role between the health and agriculture sectors. Its primary function is to marshall the pertinent animal health resources that may be needed for the protection and improvement of human health. This, in fact, is the ultimate goal of all animal health activities.
The American Medical Association outlined specific roles for veterinarians in the Summary Report on Emergency Medical Care prepared in 1959. The National Veterinary Services (usually in the Ministry of Agriculture), the Veterinary Public Health Unit (usually in the Ministry of Health), and the veterinary profession in general have been utilized effectively in many disasters. They have performed a variety of services including assistance in the control of communicable diseases, safeguarding food and water supplies, and occasionally contributing to the medical and surgical care of the injured.
The Jamaican Example
Several countries in the Americas have epidemiological surveillance and emergency preparedness mobilization plans for the containment and eradication of foreign animal diseases, should they be introduced. Jamaica, for instance, has such a plan involving both the public and private sectors. Its operations are based in the veterinary services of the Agriculture Ministry. The core of the plan, which is periodically field tested to enhance its reactive capacity, consists of mobilizing personnel and resources to any point in the country within a matter of minutes, whenever the emergency containment and eradication of a foreign animal disease is called for.
Countries that have such plans should incorporate them in the national disaster plan. A structure similar to Jamaica's would be particularly useful in assisting the injured and moving supplies and food into the disaster area during relief operations.
Possible Problem Areas
Following disasters, the natural humanitarian response of many countries is to send all kinds of relief goods, including food. Some may send fresh and frozen meat or other foods of animal origin. In some countries, specific animal diseases are not known to exist. In the Caribbean, Central America and Panama, foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever, are among those not known to be endemic. Acceptance of donations of meat and other animal products may carry the risk of introducing foreign animal diseases, with serious economic consequences.
Although the potential for zoonoses (or animal diseases transmissible to man) is present following natural disasters, few outbreaks have been reported and documented. There are several important zoonoses that could possibly break out as a result of natural disasters. They include:
1. Leptospirosis outbreaks have been reported
2. Rabies and animal bites could result due to incursion by synantropic animals (dogs, rats, mongoose, snakes, etc.) into destroyed human habitats; and other diseases such as:
1. Plague may break out in enzootic areas
following property destruction and death, and accommodation of human survivors,
reservoir hosts, and vectors;
2. Salmonellosis and gastroenteritis due to consumption of animals that have died as a result of the disaster;
3. Tularemia resulting from contact with dead rodents and contaminated water;
4. Tapeworm infection and trichinosis due to lack of cooking facilities and consumption of uninspected meat;
5. Anthrax (in endemic areas) following flooding and germination of infective spores;
6. Dermatophytosis due to incursion of humans and reservoir animals into each others' habitats following natural disasters.
Veterinary Medicine and Relief Operations
The areas of specific veterinary medical involvement in relief operations following disasters include:
Control of Communicable Diseases: Prevention and control of zoonoses outbreaks; collection and handling of laboratory specimens; storage, handling and distribution of vaccines and medicines; cleaning and disinfection of contaminated premises; provision of public health and medical laboratory support through rural or mobile animal health diagnostic laboratories.
Environmental health protection: Sanitary disposal and burial of dead animals and livestock; protection of water supplies from animal contamination; control of stray dogs and other domestic animals; control of rodents, wild animals and venomous animals.
Food distribution: Hygienic handling, storage and processing of food; inspection, microbiological control and quality assurance of perishable foods, especially of animal origin; supervision of hygienic make-shift slaughtering and inspection of food animals; certification of acceptance of relief foods, especially meat and other animal products coming from other countries; assisting in the hygienic operation and management of mass kitchens and dining rooms in crowded areas or refugee camps.
Mass casualties and medical emergencies: Assist in the mobilization of relief supplies into stricken area; assist in the provision of emergency medical and surgical care to the injured.
WHO/UNHCR Lists of Drugs and Equipment for Refugee Camps
The World Health Organization and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees collaborated in the preparation and distribution of a document listing the drugs and equipment that experience in the field has shown to be essential for health in refugee camps. Two lists of drugs are provided. One, entitled "Total Basic Drug Requirements for a Refugee Camp of 10,000 people for a three month period," is based on a given population structure, four contacts per person per year for all age groups, a possible incidence of symptoms and suggested treatment, standardized treatment schedules, and other assumptions based on the experience of health professionals working in temporary settlements. The second list is intended for the exclusive use of doctors and senior nurses, and is meant as an emergency supply of more sophisticated drugs on a provisional basis. Recommendations regarding the general management of drugs are included with the lists. The list of equipment consists of standard clinic supplies that are available internationally. Copies may be obtained from the Editor of this Newsletter. When making the request, please note the corresponding reference code listed under Selected Bibliography, page 8 of this issue.
PAHO Appoints Area Disaster Experts
Dr. Miguel Gueri was appointed to the post of Adviser on Disaster Preparedness and Relief Coordination for the South American subregions. A Spanish national with wide experience in public health following hurricanes and volcanic eruptions, Dr. Gueri previously held the position of Nutrition Adviser for the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute in Port of Spain, Trinidad. Dr. Gueri assumed the post in Lima, Peru on July 6, 1981.
Dr. José Luis Zeballos, former director of the Bolivian Division of Epidemiology, joined the Disaster Preparedness and Relief Coordination Office at PAHO headquarters. During his tenure as Director of Epidemiology, Dr. Zeballos had direct field experience with natural disasters and contributed to a national emergency plan. Among other duties, he will be responsible for coordinating PAHO technical cooperation in disaster preparedness with Mexico, Panama and Central American Member Countries. He will be stationed in Washington, D.C.
Tenth World Conference of Sociology
There will be at least two sessions on the Sociology of Disasters at the Tenth World Congress of Sociology, August 16-20, 1982, in Mexico City, Mexico. Anyone interested in presenting a paper should submit an abstract (no longer than a page) by August 30, 1981 to: Professor E. L. Quarantelli, Disaster Research Center, Derby Hall, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 U.S.A.. While at least one of the proposed sessions will specifically focus on cross-cultural aspects of disasters, any paper relevant to the general topic of the Sociology of Disasters can be submitted for consideration.
American College of Emergency Physicians
The Florida Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians prepared a special literature search and compilation on the subject of triage techniques and tagging. The documents cover experiences with the use of the triage principle and tagging in the U. S., and include samples of tags. Bibliographic references are numerous. A limited number of copies of the compendium can be obtained from the Editor of this Newsletter.
Under the auspices of UNDP/UNDRO, representatives of potential bilateral and international donor agencies met in Bridgetown, Barbados on June 22, 1981. Participants discussed ways of improving coordination among outside agencies, including the full use of the expertise of the Pan Caribbean disaster preparedness team which will soon begin operations.
Commonwealth Association of Architects
The Commonwealth Association of Architects has reported a change of address. The new address is: CAA, The Building Centre, London WC1E 7BT, England. The CAA was referred to in the last issue of this Newsletter, in which their slide series on disasters and human settlements was reviewed. The authors of the series are Ian Davis, Everett Ressler and Ken Westgate.
University of California at Los Angeles
Dr. Derrick B. Jelliffe of the University of California at Los Angeles School of Public Health, is the principal instructor in a recently organized seminar on Overseas Refugee Health Programs. The seminar covers the organization of health services, surveillance, contributions of voluntary agencies, feeding programs, environmental health, training, and case studies. Focus is on an interdisciplinary approach. Case studies and examples cover Africa, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Latin America. For further information, contact: Mr. Todd Smayda, International Health Consultium, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California 90024, U. S. A.
The following article has been excerpted from an article of the same title, submitted in April of this year to the Editor of this Newsletter by the Department of Environmental Programs of the Ministry of Health of Chile.
The geology of Chile makes the country constantly subject to earthquakes of varying intensity, and to floods, droughts, volcanism, forest fires, frosts, etc.
The experience of the last three major earthquakes (1939, 1960 and 1965) has taught us some important lessons. The most serious shortcomings observed include: lack of planning for and organization of relief operations; lack of a single decision-making authority supported by multisectoral and interprofessional advice; lack of plans for coordinating the transfer of large numbers of injured persons between hospitals; no anticipation that large numbers of corpses might have to be buried immediately; lack of timely information from the stricken locality on the epicenter of the quake, its magnitude, and the resultant morbidity and mortality; lack of information on the damage to the environmental health infrastructure, deterioration of regular medical care because of deficiencies of the health team and the physical facilities, and risk of epidemic outbreaks due to varying shortfalls in carrying out immunization programs. To this must be added the partial or total disruption of physical health resources.
Contributions of the Health Sector
Local health authorities can contribute to compiling statistics in the course of their curative and preventive health programs, and can report on their planned activities and currently available human and material resources. They are also able to provide other data and make proposals for joint action, such as:
- Report on the status and past trend of environmental sanitation in the stricken locality or localities, and on the extent of the qualitative and quantitative impairment of the water supply, excreta and waste disposal systems, and of food supply, housing and the working environment;
-report on previous immune status in urban and rural areas, in relation to age groups, socioeconomic and cultural status, overcrowding, population migration, etc.;
-establish the need to reinforce the epidemiological surveillance system to ensure the correct and timely reporting of diseases that pose the highest risks, (in addition to local risks, diseases that can be introduced from abroad should be included);
-establish a system for the isolation or quick transfer of acute and chronic patients who cannot be treated locally;
-cooperate with the authorities charged with conducting information, publicity and education programs; and,
-in conjunction with other authorities, oversee the solution to the problem of burying the dead.
The measures to be applied to mitigate the effects of disasters are implicit in the above points and are hence not considered separately.
The units are capable of reaching any area of the country where a disaster occurs within eight hours.
On the whole, the health of the Chilean population cannot be said to have suffered significantly in disasters, partly due to the organization of the National Health System, the previous eradication of many diseases, and the control of communicable disease through immunization. Environmental programs have also made an important contribution to this result.
In fact, the effects that disasters can have on health can be effectively mitigated or significantly avoided only by other factors which a rational consideration of any future eventuality must take into account. These factors are:
-Raising the standard of living in marginal areas and areas of extreme poverty;
- regionalization, and rapid communication from the primary to the most complex levels of health, education, public works, transportation, housing and other services;
-diagnosis and treatment of the weak points in our general infrastructure, some parts of which are already in a dilapidated state, and which could collapse in a disaster, with serious consequences for health and other activities;
-development and enforcement of effective legislation and implementation of effective safety and fire-fighting measures in tall buildings;
-a plan for dealing with the risks of a disaster on a multisectoral basis, which must be an important part of the National Socioeconomic Development Plan;
- improvement of the disaster surveillance network (earthquakes, tidal waves, floods, storms, frosts, atomic explosions, etc.);
- coordination with other national programs and offices, and;
-refinement of communications with the international natural disaster surveillance network and (relief agencies).
NATIONAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS WORKSHOPS IN THE CARIBBEAN AREA
The following roundup of activities carried out in the English-speaking Caribbean over the last year was prepared by Mrs. Gloria Noel and Dr. Rose Cringle, PAHO Nursing Advisers for the Caribbean Area.
The workshop on The Role of the Nurse in Disaster Preparedness was held for senior nurses and selected health educators in Barbados from May 12 to 16, 1980. A basic document, Caribbean Regional Guidelines for Nurses and the Role of the Nurse in Disaster Preparedness and Relief, was produced and distributed to all countries which participated. Following this, training activities related to disaster management were held in individual countries.
The major content area at these workshops included: a) Types and effects of Caribbean disasters; b) role of national disaster management committees; c) role of the health sector at national, intermediate and peripheral levels; d) postdisaster health problems; e) management of mass casualties, (triage and development of protocols); f) food and nutrition; g) crisis intervention; h) sanitation and environmental health; i) developing plans for disaster management; and j) developing plans of action for training personnel in disaster management.
A series of one-day workshops for thirteen health professionals was conducted for environmental health officers, nursing personnel in community and hospital services, and health auxiliaries including community health aides, maids and orderlies. Pharmacists, physicians, nurses and environmental health officers were resource persons at these workshops. Forty-four districts were given boxes with supplies for disaster management and relief.
A three-day workshop on disaster management was held at the University Centre Basseterre. The sixteen participants included health educators, environmental health personnel and nurses. The Chief Medical Officer attended many of the sessions and acted as a resource person. Workshop participants agreed on the outlines of plans for disaster management in hospitals and community services. They formed committees to continue working on and complete the Disaster Management Plan, and developed a plan of action for training other levels of health personnel. Finally, they drafted six protocols for emergency care.
Two workshops, lasting two days each, were held at Parliament Building, St. John's. A total of sixty-nine persons participated, including physicians, nursing personnel, environmental health officers, hospital administrators, record clerks and the statistician. The British Red Cross Consultant in the Caribbean Region served as a resource person and demonstrated life support techniques.
Barbados' Health Ministry sponsored two multidisciplinary workshops on Disaster Preparedness held from May 11 to 16, 1981, at the Community College. The workshops were coordinated by Ms. Sylvia Norville, Chief Nursing Officer. A total of 145 people participated. These included: ambulance drivers, Barbados' drug service employees, environmental health employees, laboratory technicians, nurses, physicians, public health inspectors, sanitation employees, and X-ray technicians. In addition, there were two participants from the community. Five health professionals from Antigua, St. Kitts/Nevis, Dominica, Grenada and Saint Lucia also participated. Recommendations for improving disaster preparedness made during the group discussions will be taken back to the individual agencies for consideration.
The health department of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, carried out a comprehensive epidemiologic study of the health effects of floods that occurred in that state in April of this year. The study, which is now being prepared for publication, was based on a field survey carried out by Dr. J. Gamarra. It includes background information with sociogeographic data, human and health resources, population statistics and ongoing health programs. The description of the flooding and subsequent actions taken in the area of public health is followed by comparisons of mortality figures and recommendations. For further information on this study, contact: Dr. Carlos Dávila, PAHO/WHO Representative, Caixa Postal 04-0229, Setor de Embaixadas Norte, Lote 19, CEP. 70000, Brasilia, D.F., Brazil.
In May of this year, the Colombian Health Ministry designated Dr. Hernán Alzate Pérez to take charge of disaster preparedness activities. Dr. Alzate will coordinate health sector activities at the national level aimed at preparing for and mitigating the effects of natural disasters. His post is under the direction of the National Secretariat General of Health. The Ministry is presently developing a national disaster preparedness plan. Corresponding manuals describing tasks according to type of disaster, are being prepared for health workers, starting at the local community level. For further information, write: Dr. Hernán Atzate Pérez, Ministry of Health, Dirección de Atención Médica, Cable 16, No. 7-19, Bogotá, Colombia.
The Secretariat of State for Public Works and Communications, Department of Standards, Regulations and Systems of the Dominican Republic organized a conference on natural disasters. The conference was held in Santo Domingo from July 20 to 25, 1981. Invitations were extended to Mexico, Honduras, Puerto Rico, the United States and major international agencies. The agenda included health aspects of disasters, a topic developed with the cooperation of PAHO. Additional information and documents may be requested from Sra. Milagros Manila, Secretary of State for Public Works and Communications, San Cristobal Avenue, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.
The books referred to below have been abstracted from review copies received from the publisher by the editor of this Newsletter. Except where noted otherwise, none of the books are available from PAHO. The publisher and the list price (when available) are included at the end of the abstracts for readers who are interested in purchasing the books.
Types and Events of Disasters, Organization in Various Disaster Situations, R. Frey and P. Safar, eds. 355 pp. Extensive Refs. 1980 (English)
First of two volumes. Compendium of papers presented at the International Congress on Disaster Medicine held in Mainz, Germany from September 30 to October 3, 1977. First-hand accounts of emergencies caused by natural disasters, armed conflicts, transportation and radiation accidents and other technological hazards. Discussion of Emergency Medical Systems, their organization and criteria for treatment. Cases examined are largely European, U.S. or Middle Eastern. Excellent overview of trends and issues relevant to emergency physicians, nurses and administrators in any country. Includes list of authors and their mailing addresses.
- US$47.00. Springer Series on Disaster Medicine Vol. I, Springer-Verlag, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, New Jersey 07094, U. S. A.
Resuscitation and Life Support, Relief of Pain and Suffering, idem. 280 pp. Extensive Refs. 1980 (English)
Second Volume. Papers covering technical aspects of life support techniques and training, including discussion of various medical procedures for mass casualties. Ends with a summary of recommendations made by session and workshop chairmen. Intended for medical and nursing personnel involved in the specialized practice of critical care.
- US$50.00. Springer Series on Disaster Medicine Vol. II, Springer-Verlag, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, New Jersey 07094, U. S. A.
Transition Housing for Victims of Disasters, Disaster Assistance Manuals Vol. I, Agency for International Development. 150 pp. April 1981 (English)
Illustrated handbook designed as a guide for AID officials and national authorities responsible for disaster assistance programs.
Organized in three sections: habitat and disaster, technical issues and project preparation and implementation. Covers housing designs resistant to cyclones, earthquakes, and flood damage, and appropriate construction materials. A limited number of copies are available from the Editor of this Newsletter.
- US$10.00. Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, State Department, Washington, D.C., 20523, U.S.A.
Latin America, Housing Survey for Disaster Relief and Preparedness, Office of U. S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Agency for International Development, 140 pp., Extensive Refs. March, 1981 (English)
Regional housing profile designed to assist in the planning of shelter relief operations for the poor in Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru. The first part describes settlement patterns and housing types; methods and materials commonly used in housing construction in each country; the institutions involved in the financing and building of low-cost housing; and, when information was available, the kinds of emergency shelter provided in the past and their acceptability. The second part covers disaster mitigation techniques in earthquake and wind-resistant housing.
- US$5.00. Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C. 20523, U.S.A.
Disaster Preparedness in the Americas is the Newsletter of the Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination Office of the Pan American Health Organization, Regional Office of the World Health Organization for the Americas. The reported events, activities and programs do not imply endorsement by PAHO/WHO, nor do the statements made necessarily represent the policy of the Organization. The publication of this Newsletter has been made possible through financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency and the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance.
Correspondence and inquiries should be addressed to:
Journals and periodicals
Emergency Management, Sandra Farrell, ed., Federal Emergency Management Agency. (English)
Quarterly. Official FEMA publication covering management issues in emergencies of natural and man-made origin. Case studies and direct reporting. Emphasis on U.S. events. Contribution of original articles on management aspects of disaster accepted from any country. Subscription: Free. Emergency Management, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C. 20472, U. S. A.
Alerta, Blanca Rojas de Oropeza, ed., División de Defensa Civil, Dirección de Bienestar Social del Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social, Venezuela. (Spanish)
Periodic. Guidelines for education of general population and auxiliary health personnel. Covers first aid and personal safety measures. Subscription: Edificio Protexo, Piso 1, Local 19, Avda. Urdaneta entre Pelotas y Punceres, Caracas, Venezuela.
Defensa Civil, Defensa Civil Colombiana. (Spanish)
Periodic. Pamphlets on personal safety, first aid and guidelines for natural disasters. Meant for civil defense and auxiliary health personnel. Subscription: Defensa Civil Colombiana, Calle 55 No. 10-46, Bogota, Colombia.
Disasters, The International Journal of Disasters Studies and Practice, John Seaman, ed., Pergamon Press. ISSN 0361-3666 (English)
Quarterly. Only research journal in the field. Reports and articles cover wide range of technical and policy aspects of disaster mitigation and preparedness around the world. Literature reviews. Accepts unpublished manuscripts. Excellent for authoritative research findings. Should be part of any disaster library. Subscription: US$20.00 for 1 year, Disasters, Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford 0X3 OBW, England.
UNDRO News, Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator. (English and French)
Bimonthly. Reports on natural disasters, both chronic and acute, around the world. Includes mission findings and analytical pieces. Calendar of activities and events. Subscription: Free. UNDRO, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland.
Hazard Monthly, James W. Morentz, ed., Research Alternatives. (English)
Monthly. Sixteen-page tabloid. "Interprets timely information about the problems created by and solutions to manmade technological and natural hazards." Accepts newspaper and magazine length articles on research, techniques, plans, conferences, press releases. Emphasis mainly but not exclusively on the U.S. Subscription: $16.00 in U.S. Other countries slightly higher. Hazard, Box 34408, Bethesda, Maryland 20034, U. S. A.
The Urban Edge, George Wynne, ed., Council for International Urban Liaison. ISSN 0163-6510. (English)
Monthly. Six-page newsletter. Emphasizes "practical experience in low cost service delivery and employment creation projects in developing countries." Summarizes recent publications and findings in vulnerability analysis, assistance, and relief programs. Reports on information sources and natural and man-made disaster research institutions. Subscription: US$20.00 (1 year), US$37.00 (2 yrs.), US$50.00 (3 yrs.). Council for International Urban Liaison, 818 18th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006, U.S.A.
International Civil Defense, International Civil Defense Organization. (English)
Monthly. Bulletin. Each issue leads with topical report on practical aspects of rescue and relief operations. Excerpts from other publications on disaster related topics ranging from handling of hazardous materials to health, technology and management issues. Library Leaflets section lists new publications on all aspects of natural and man-made disasters available at the ICDO Documentation Service. Subscription: ICDO, 10-12 Chemin de Surville, CH 1213 Petit-Lancey, Geneva, Switzerland.
Panorama, David Chalfan, ed. League of Red Cross Societies (English, French and Spanish)
Eight issues per year. Official publication covering relief activities of the League around the world. Subscription: SFr 12. Panorama, P.O.B. 276, 1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland.
Emergency Planning Digest, Alex M. Stirton, ed., Emergency Planning, Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OW6. (English and French)
Bimonthly. Civilian emergency planning magazine. Accepts articles on foreign policies and activities related to emergency planning. Subscription: Free. The Editor, Emergency Planning Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OW6.
Natural Hazards Observer, Institute of Behavioral Science. (English)
Quarterly. Information on meetings and conferences. U.S. policies and regulations, organizations and publications. Subscription: Institute of Behavioral Science No. 6, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, U.S.A.
SEAN Bulletin, Scientific Event Alert Network, Smithsonian Institution. (English)
Monthly. Basic data on geophysical, meteoric, biologic, and other events worldwide. Includes analysis of data and sources of further information. Subscription: US$40.00 for North American continent, US$80.00 for other countries. Also available on microfiche. Publication number PB80-9157. National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161, U.S.A.
Disaster Management, N.K. Jain, ed., Joint Assistance Centre, India. (English)
Quarterly. New journal devoted to disaster prevention and preparedness, published by a national voluntary action group. Treats national and international issues on refugee camps, natural disasters, relief procedures, and roles and limitations of international relief agencies. Reviews manuals and articles in the field of preparedness, mitigation and relief management. Subscription: US$15.00 per annum. The Editor, Joint Assistance Centre, Adhyatma Sadhna Kendra, Mehrauli, New Delhi-110030, India.
The publications listed in this section are articles of interest to health professionals and others responsible for various aspects of disaster relief and preparedness programs. They have been reproduced and recently added to the collection of articles available from the editor of this Newsletter. A complete list of available reprints will be circulated to our readers periodically. When making requests, please quote the reference code listed to the left of the publication title.
Response to Hurricane Allen On Saint Lucia, CAREC, Bull Pan Am
Health Organ 14(4), 415-417, 1980
Emergency Department Radiation Accident Protocol, R. B. Leonard,
R. C. Ricks, Ann Emerg Med 9(9), 462-466, September,
A Typology for the Classification of Disasters, Berren, Beigel,
Ghertner, Community Mental Health Journal 16(2), 103-111, Summer,
Emergency Medical Services, Evaluation of Disaster Preparedness
for Medical Emergencies, C. Goodwin, Mimeograph, Summer, 1980
Dominica- Hurricane David, 29 August, 1979, Una Reid, Disasters
4(3), 277-282, 1980
New Hanover Memorial Hospital, Emergency Plans. Revised plan.
Disaster Preparedness and Relief Nursing in the Caribbean, Grace
Allman Burke, Bull Pan Am Health Organ 14(4), 392-396,
Refugee Research Bibliography, Barry N. Stein, Michigan State
University, December, 1979
Rapid Assessment of Health Status and Preventive Medicine Needs of
Newly Arrived Kampuchean Refugees, Sa Kaeo, Thailand, Glass et al. The
Lancet, pp. 868-872. April 19, 1980
Lists of Drugs and Equipment for a Refugee Camp of 10,000 people
for a three month period, WHO/UNHCR, Health of Refugees, 1981
Disasters and Settlements, R. Norton, Disasters 4(3),
NAMES OF HURRICANES FOR 1981:
Arlene, Bret, Cindy, Dennis, Emily, Gert, Harvey, Irene, Jose,
Katrina, Lenny, Maria, Nate, Ophelia, Philippe, Rita, Stan, Tammy, Vince, Wilma.