|Applications of machine learning in information retrieval|
Cunningham, S. J., Littin, J. N., Witten, I. H. (1997) Working Paper 97/6, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato; February.
Information retrieval systems provide access to collections of thousands, or millions, of documents, from which, by providing an appropriate description, users can recover any one. Typically, users iteratively refine the descriptions they provide to satisfy their needs, and retrieval systems can utilize user feedback on selected documents to indicate the accuracy of the description at any stage. The style of description required from the user, and the way it is employed to search the document database, are consequences of the indexing method used for the collection. The index may take different forms, from storing keywords with links to individual document, to clustering documents under related topics. Much of the work in information retrieval can be automated. Processes such as document indexing and query refinement are usually accomplished by computer, while document classification and index term selection are more often performed manually. However, manual development and maintenance of document databases is time-consuming, tedious, and error-prone. Algorithms that "mine" documents for indexing information, and model user interests to help them formulate queries, reduce the workload and can ensure more consistent behavior. Such algorithms are based in machine learning, a dynamic, burgeoning area of computer science which is finding application in domains ranging from "expert systems," where learning algorithms supplement-or even supplant-domain experts for generating rules and explanations (Langley and Simon, 1995), to "intelligent agents," which learn to play particular, highly-specialized, support roles for individual people and are seen by some to herald a new renaissance of artificial intelligence in information technology (Hendler, 1997). Abstract