Cover Image
close this book05. The Role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the Reduction of Maternal Mortality
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSummary
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe Rationale for TBA Training
View the documentThe Role of Traditional Birth Attendants
View the documentTBA Training
View the documentEvaluation of TBA Training Programmes
View the documentTheoretical Considerations in Measuring the Outcome of Training TBAs
View the documentEvidence of Maternal Mortality Reduction from Programmes of TBA Training
View the documentAdditional Health Benefits from TBA Training Programmes
View the documentThe Role of TBAs in Referral to Essential Obstetric Care Facilities
View the documentThe Costs of TBA Training
View the documentThe Debate Continues
View the documentConclusion
View the documentReferences


Akalin M, Maine D, Francisco A and Vaughan R (1997). Why perinatal mortality cannot be a proxy for maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning. 28(4),330-335.

Akpala CO (1994). An evaluation of a knowledge and practices of trained traditional birth attendants in Bodinga, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97,46-50.

Aletor GA (1981). Domiciliary midwifery care, including traditional birth attendants. In: Maternal and child health around the world, Eds. H. M. Wallace and G. J. Ebrahim, London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 89-98.

Alisjahbana, Williams C, Dharmayanti R, Hermawan D, Kwast B.E. and Koblinsky M (1995). An integrated village maternity service to improve referral patterns in a rural area in West-Java. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 48(Suppl.),S83-S94, 1995.

Allotey PK (1999). Where there's no tradition of traditional birth attendants: Kassena Nankana District, Northern Ghana. In: Safe Motherhood Initiatives: critical issues, Eds. Berer & Sundari, Blackwell Science, Oxford, 147-154.

Alto WA, Albu RE, Irabo G (1991). An alternative to unattended delivery. A training programme for village midwives in Papua New Guinea. Social Science & Medicine 32(5),613-618.

Amin R & Khan AH (1989). Characteristics of traditional midwives and their beliefs and practices in rural Bangladesh. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 28,119-125.

Bang AT, Bang RA, Sontakke PG (1994). Management of Childhood Pneumonia by traditional birth attendants. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 72(6),897-905.

Bang AT, Bang RA, Baitule SB, Reddy MH, Deshmukh MD (1999). Effect of home-based neonatal care and management of sepsis on neonatal mortality: field trial in rural India. Lancet 354,1955-61.

Bashir M Aleem and Mustansar M (1995). A 5-year study of maternal mortality in Faisalabad City Pakistan. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 50(Suppl. 2),S93-S96.

Bayoumi (1976). The training and activity of village midwives in the Sudan. Trop. Doct. 6:118-125.

Begum SF (1984). Role of TBA infertility control programme in Bangladesh. Mother and Child 21,10-12.

Belsey MA (1985). Traditional Birth Attendants: A Resource for the Health of Women. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 23,247-248.

Bemara SK, Chaturverdi SK (1990). Impact of training on the performance of traditional birth attendants. Journal of Family Welfare 36(4),32-35.

Bhatia S (1981). Traditional childbirth practices: implications for a rural MCH programme. Studies in family planning. 12(2),66-75.

Blanchet T (1984 ). Meanings and Rituals of Births in Rural Bangladesh. University Press: Dhaka.

Brennan M (1989). Training traditional birth attendants. Postgraduate Doctor Africa. 11(1),16-18.

Bullough CH (1989). Maternal mortality in developing countries. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 96,1119-20.

Bullough CH (2000). A assessment of the effectiveness of traditional birth attendants. A Review for DfID, New Delhi, India. John Snow International, London.

de Bernis L, Dumont A, Bouillin D, Gueye A, Dompnier JP, Bouvier-Colle MH (2000). Maternal morbidity and mortality in two different populations of Senegal: a prospective study (Moma survey ). British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 107, 68-74.

De Brouwere V, Tonglet R, Van Lerberghe W (1998). Strategies for reducing maternal mortality in developing countries: what can we learn from the history of the industrialized west? Tropical medicine & international health 3,771-82.

Cabral M, Kamal I, Kumar V and Mehra L (1992). Training of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAS). A Guide for Master Trainers. WHO/MCH/FPP/92.4. World Health Organisation, Geneva.

Campbell O and Graham W (1990 ). Measuring Maternal Mortality and Morbidity: Levels and Trends. Maternal and Child Epidemiology Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London.

Campero C. Garcia, Diaz C, Ortiz O, Reynoso S and Langer A (1998). "Alone, I wouldn't have known what to do": a qualitative study on social support during labor and delivery in Mexico. Soc. Sci. Med. 47(3),395-403.

Castañeda X, Garcia C, Romero X, Nuñez-urquiza RM, Gonzalez D and Langer A (1996). Traditional birth attendants in Mexico: advantages and inadequacies of care for normal deliveries. Soc. Sci. Med. 43(2),199-207.

Chalmers B (1993). Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth. S. African Medical Journal. 83,200-203.

Chalmers B & Meyer D (1993). Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth. S. African Medical Journal. 83,204-206.

Chen. P (1981). Social background, customs and traditions. In: Maternal and child health around the world, Eds H. M. Wallace and G. J. Ebrahim, London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 71-75.

Chowdhury M (1998). The role of traditional birth attendants in a safe delivery programme in Bangladesh. Trop. Doct. 28,104-106.

Eades CA, Brace C, Osei L, LaGuardia KD (1993). Traditional birth attendants and maternal mortality in Ghana. Social science & medicine 36,1503-7.

Family Care International(1994). Action for the 21st Century: Reproductive Health and Rights for All. Cairo International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action, September 1994. New York: Family Care International.

Fleming JR (1994). What in the world is being done about TBAs? An overview of international and national attitudes to traditional birth attendants. Midwifery 10, 142-7.

Goodburn EA, Gazi R, Chowdhury M (1995). Beliefs and practices regarding delivery and postpartum maternal morbidity in rural Bangladesh. Studies in family planning 26,22-32.

Goodburn EA (1997). A prospective study of maternal morbidity related to delivery and the puerperium in Bangladesh. PhD Thesis. London University.

Goodburn EA, Chowdhury M, Gazi R, Marshall T and Graham W (2000). Training traditional birth attendants in clean delivery does not prevent postpartum infection. Health Policy and Planning 15(4),394-399.

Graham WJ, Ronsmans CCA, Filippi VGA, Campbell OMR, Goodburn EA, Marshall TF de C, Shulman C, Davies JL (1995). Asking questions about women’s reproductive health in community-based surveys: guidelines on scope and content. Maternal and Child Epidemiology Unit, Publication No. 6. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London.

Greene P (1995). TBA Training Programmes: Discussion. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 50 (Suppl.),S141-S143.

Greenwood AM, Bradley AK, Byass P, Greenwood BM, Snow RW, Bennet S et al. (1990). Evaluation of a primary health care programme in the Gambia. I. The impact of trained traditional birth attendants on the outcome of pregnancy. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93,58-66.

Hitesh J (1994). Traditional birth attendants: family planning awareness, attitudes and advocacy. Journal of family welfare 40,32-36.

Högberg U (1985). Maternal mortality in Sweden. Thesis, University of Umeå.

Interagency Group for Safe Motherhood (2000). Skilled Attendance at Delivery: A Review of the Evidence. Family Care International, New York.

Islam MS., Shahid NS, Haque ME & Mostafa G (1984). Characteristics and practices of traditional birth attendants in Matlab, Bangladesh. J Preventive and Social Medicine 3(2),23-31.

Janovitz B, Bailey PE, Dominik RC, Araujol (1988). TBAs in rural north east Brazil: referral patterns and perinatal mortality. Health Policy and Planning 3,48-58.

Jordan B (1989). Cosmopolitical obstetrics: some insights from the training of traditional midwives. Soc. Sci. Med. 28(9),925-944.

Jordan B (1987). High technology: the case of obstetrics. World Health Forum 8,312-319.

Kamal IT (1998). A traditional birth attendant: a reality and a challenge. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics 63, suppl 1, S43-52.

Khan AR, Rochat RW, Jahan FA, Begum SF (1986). Induced abortion in rural area of Bangladesh. Studies in family planning 17,95-99.

Koblinsky M, Tinker A, and Daly P (1994). Programming for Safe Motherhood: a guide to action. Health Pol Plann 9(3),252-266.

Koblinsky MA., Campbell O and Heichelheim J (1999). Organizing delivery care: what works for safe motherhood? Bulletin of the World Health Orgnization; 77(5),399-406.

Krasovek K, Anderson MA (1991). Maternal anthropometry for prediction of pregnancy outcomes: memorandum from a USA idea WHO/PAHO MotherCare meeting. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 69,523-32.

Kwast BE (1992). Midwives: key rural health workers in maternity care. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics 38, suppl, S9-15.

Kwast BE (1995). Building a community-based maternity program. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 48 (Suppl.),S67-S82.

Kwast BE (1996). Reduction of maternal and perinatal mortality in rural and peri-urban settings: what works. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 69,47-53.

Kwast BE, Kidane Mariam A, Rochat R (1986). Maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Studies in Family Planning 17,288-301.

Lartson LI, Sodipe OA, Ebrahim GJ, Abel R (1987). The trained traditional birth attendant: a study of her role in two cultures. Journal of tropical pediatrics 33,29-34.

Leedam E (1985). Traditional Birth Attendants. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet. 23,249-274.

Lefèber Y and Voorhoever H (1997). Practices and beliefs of traditional birth attendants: lessons for obstetrics in the north? Trop. Med.&Int. Health 2(12),1175-1179.

Maine D (1993). Safe Motherhood Programmes: options and issues. Centre for Population and Family Health, School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York.

Maine D, Akalin M, Chakraborty J, Francisco A and Strong M (1996). Why did maternal mortality decline in Matlab? Studies in Family Planning. 27(4),179-187.

Mathur HN, Damodar & Sharma PN (1979). The impact of training traditional birth attendants on the utilisation of maternal health services. J. Epidemiology & Community Health. 33,142-144.

Mathur HN, Sharma PN, and Tain TP (1983). Traditional way of maternal and child health care in Rajasthan, India. In: Primary maternal and neonatal health: a global concern, Eds del Mundo F, Ines-Cuyegkeng E, and Aviado DM. New-York: Plenum Press. p. 473-481.

MacCormack C (1989). Status and the training of traditional midwives. Soc. Sci. Med. 28(9),941-943.

Nessa S (1995). Training of traditional birth attendants: success and failure in Bangladesh. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 50(Suppl.),S135-S139.

O'Rourke K (1995). The effect of hospital staff training on management of obstetrical patients referred by traditional birth attendants. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 48 (Suppl.),S95-S102.

Okafor B and Rizzuto RR (1994). Women's and health-care providers' views of maternal practices and services in rural Nigeria. Stud. Fam. Plann. 25(6),353-361.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2000). A Better World for All: Progress towards the International Development Goals. OECD, Paris.

Ronsmans C, Vanneste AM, Chakraborty J, van Ginneken J (1997). Decline in maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: a cautionary tale. Lancet 350(9094), 1810-4.

Ross D (1986). Does training TBAs prevent neonatal tetanus? Health Policy and Planning 1(2),89-98.

Rozario S (1995). Traditional birth attendants in Bangladeshi villages: cultural and sociologic factors. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 50(Suppl. 2),S145-S152.

Sai F and Measham DM (1992). Safe Motherhood Initiative: getting our priorities straight [see comments]. Lancet 339(8791),478-480.

Semali I (1992). Some aspects of traditional birth attendants practice in a rural area in Tanzania. Transactions Royal Society Tropical Medicine & Hygiene 86,330-331.

Sibley L, Armbruster D (1997). Obstetric first aid in the community-partners in safe motherhood. A strategy for reducing maternal mortality. Journal of nurse midwifery 42,117-21.

Singh A (1994). Profile of traditional birth attendants in rural area of north India. Journal of nurse midwifery 39,119-23.

Singh A, Kaur A (1993). Perceptions of traditional birth attendants regarding contraceptive methods. Journal of family welfare 39, 6-39.

Smith JB, Fortney JA eds.(1996). Traditional Birth Attendants. North Carolina: Family Health International.

Smith JB, Coleman NA, Fortney JA, De-Graft Johnson J, Blumhagen DW, and Grey TW (2000). The impact of traditional birth attendant training on delivery complications in Ghana. Health Policy & Planning 15(3),326-331.

Stanton C, Abderrahim N and Hill K (1997). DHS Maternal Mortality Indicators: An Assessment of Data Quality and Implications for Data Use. DHS Analytical Reports No. 4. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc.

Starrs A. (1998). The Safe motherhood Action Agenda: Priorities for the Next Decade. Report on the Safe motherhood Technical Consultation, 18-23 October, 1997, Colombo, Sri Lanka. New York: Family Care International and the Inter-Agency Group for Safe Motherhood.

UNFPA (1997). Support to Traditional Birth Attendants. Evaluation Report, 12. UNFPA, New York.

Walraven G, Weeks A (1999). The role of (traditional) birth attendants with midwifery skills in the reduction of maternal mortality. Tropical medicine & international health 4,527-529.

Wildshut HI (1992). Safe motherhood initiative: the art of the feasible. Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde 136,2340-3.

Wollast E, Renard F, Vandenbussche P, Buekens P (1993). Detecting maternal morbidity and mortality by traditional birth attendants in Burkina Faso. Health Policy and Planning 2,161-8.

World Bank (1999). Safe motherhood and the World Bank: Lessons from 10 Years of Experience. Washington: The World Bank.

World Health Organization (1997 ). Coverage of Maternity Care. A listing of Available Information. World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO/RHT/MSM/96.28.

World Health Organization and UNICEF (1996 ). Revised 1990 Estimates of Maternal Mortality. World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO/FRH/MSM/96.11.

World Health Organization (1983). Programming in maternal and childhealth and family planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisor Committee and Maternal and Childhealth, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

Yadav H (1982). Study of maternal death in Kerian (1976-1980 ). The Medical journal of Malaysia 37,165-9.

Yadav H (1987). Utilization of traditional birth attendants in MCH care in rural Malaysia. Singapore Medical Journal 28(6),520-5.