Adair LS & Pollit E (1985). Outcome of maternal nutritional
supplementation: a comprehensive review of the Bacon-Chow study. American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41,948-978.
Allen LH (2000b). Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on
pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Allen LH (2000a). Pregnancy and iron deficiency: unresolved
issues. Nutrition Reviews 55,91-101.
Antonov AN (1947). Children born during the siege of Leningrad
in 1942. Journal of Pediatrics 30,250-259.
Atallah AN, Hofmeyr GJ & Duley L (2000). Calcium
supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and
related problems. Cochrane Database Systematic Review pp. CD001059.
Azaïs-Braesco V & Pascal G (2000). Vitamin A in pregnancy:
requirements and safety limits. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Barrett JFR, Whittaker PG, Williams JG & Lind T (1994). Iron
absorption during normal pregnancy: a study using isotopes. British Medical
Beard JL (2000). Effectiveness and strategies of iron
supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Beaton GH, Martorell R, Aronson KJ, Edmonston B, McCabe GP, Ross
AC & Harvey B (1993). Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the
Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries.
Belizan JM, Villar J, Bergel E, del Pino A, Di Fulvio S,
Galliano SV & Kattan C (1997). Long-term effect of calcium supplementation
during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised
controlled trial [see comments]. British Medical Journal
Belizan JM, Villar J, Gonzalez L, Campodonico L & Bergel E
(1991). Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
[see comments]. New England Journal of Medicine 325,1399-1405.
Botto LD & Yang Q (2000). 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate
reductase gene variants and congenital anomalies: A HuGe review. American
Journal of Epidemiology 151, 862-877.
Casanueva E, Magana L, Pfeffer F & Baez A (1991). Incidence
of premature rupture of membranes in pregnant women with low leukocyte levels of
vitamin C. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 401-405.
Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briley AL, Kelly FJ, Lee R, Hunt BJ,
Parmar K, Bewley SJ, Shennan AH, Steer PJ & Poston L (1999). Effects of
antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a
randomised trial. The Lancet 354, 810-816.
Cherry FF, Sandstead HH, Rojas P, Johnson LK, Batson HK &
Wang XB (1989). Adolescent pregnancy: associations among body weight, zinc
nutriture, and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Chi I, Agoestina T & Harbin J (1981). Maternal mortality at
twelve teaching hospitals in Indonesia - an epidemiological analysis.
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 19,259-266.
Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L & Coovadia HM
(1999). Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on
pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South
Africa. Aids 13,1517-1524.
Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Pridmore B, Bryce R, Duggan P, Hague WM
& Robinson JS (1999). Calcium supplementation in nulliparous women for the
prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm birth: an
Australian randomized trial. FRACOG and the ACT Study Group. Australian New
Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 39,12-18.
Delange F (1994). The disorders induced by iodine deficiency.
Thyroid 4, 107-128.
Delange F (1998).. Risks and benefits of iodine supplementation.
The Lancet 351, 923-924.
Dreyfuss M (1998). Anemia and iron deficiency during
pregnancy: ethiologies and effects on birth outcomes in Nepal. PhD
dissertation. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, Nestel P, El Amin A &
Mohamed KA (1997). Dietary vitamin A intake in relation to child growth.
Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Urassa EJN, McGrath N,
Mwakagile D, Antelman G, Mbise R, Herrera G, Kapiga S, Willet W & Hunter D
(1998). Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes
and T cell counts in HIV-1 infected women in Tanzania. The Lancet
Godfrey KM & Barker DJP (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult
disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Greenberg BL, Semba RD, Vink PE, Farley JJ, Sivapalasingam M,
Steketee RW, Thea DM & Schoenbaum EE (1997). Vitamin A deficiency and
maternal-infant transmission of HIV in two metropolitan areas in the United
States. Aids 11,325-332.
Gülmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ & Oosthuisen MM (1997).
Antioxidants in the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia: an explanatory randomised
controlled dial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hallberg L (1988). Iron balance in pregnancy. Vitamins and
minerals in pregnancy and lactation (ed Berger, H.), pp. 115-127. Nestec
Ltd., Vevey/Raven Press Ltd., New York.
Halliwell B (1994). Free radicals, antioxidants, and human
diseases: curiosity, cause, or consequence? The Lancet
Hambidge KM, Nelder KH & Walravens PA (1975). Zinc, and
congenital malformations. The Lancet 1(7906),577-578.
Herrera JA, Arevalo-Herrera M & Herrera S (1998). Prevention
of preeclampsia by linoleic acid and calcium supplementation: a randomized
controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 91,585-590.
Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Browdy
BL, Coulson A H, Clark VA, Settlage RH & Smith JC Jr. (1985). Zinc
supplementation during pregnancy in low-income teenagers of Mexican descent:
effects on selected blood constituents and on progress and outcome of pregnancy.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42,815-828.
Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Coulson
AH, Clark VA, Browdy BL, Cabalum T & Smith JC Jr. (1984). Zinc
supplementation during pregnancy: effects on selected blood constituents and on
progress and outcome of pregnancy in low-income women of Mexican descent.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40,508-521.
Jameson S (1993). Zinc status in pregnancy: the effect of zinc
therapy on perinatal mortality, prematurity, and placental ablation.
Jonsson B, Hauge B, Larsen MF & Hald F (1996). Zinc
supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 75,725-729.
King JC (2000). Determinants of maternal zinc status during
pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71,1334S-1343S.
Kynast G & Saling E (1986). Effect of oral zinc application
during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 21,117-123.
Lechtig A, Delgado H, Yarbrough C, Habicht JP, Martorell R &
Klein RE (1975b). A simple assessment of risk of low birth weight to select
women for nutritional intervention. American Journal of Obstetrics and
Lechtig A, Habicht JP, Delgado H, Klein RE, Yarbrough C &
Martorell R (1975a). Effect of food supplementation on birth weight.
Llewellyn-Jones D (1965). Sever anaemia in pregnancy (as seen in Kuala-Lumpur, Malaysia). Australian New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and
Lopez-Jaramillo P, Delgado F, Jacome P, Teran E, Ruano C &
Rivera J (1997). Calcium supplementation and the risk of preeclampsia in
Ecuadorian pregnant teenagers. Obstetrics & Gynecology 90,
Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Felix C & Lopez A (1990).
Dietary calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy hypertension
[letter] [see comments]. The Lancet 335,293.
Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Weigel RM & Yepez R (1989).
Calcium supplementation reduces the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in an
Andes population. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lumey LH (1988). Obstetric performance of women after in
utero exposure to the Dutch famine (1944-1945). Colombia University.
Lumey LH (1992). Decreased birthweights in infants after
maternal in utero exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-1945. Paedriatr
Perinat Epidemiol 6,240-253.
Lumley J, Watson M & Bower C (2000). Periconceptual
supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube
defects (Cochrane review). The Cochrane Library Update Software, Oxford.
Mahomed K (2000). Iron supplementation in pregnancy (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 Update Software, Oxford.
Mahomed K, James DK, Golding J & McCabe R (1989). Zinc
supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial.
British Medical Journal 299,826-830.
Makrides M & Crowther CA (2000). Magnesium supplementation
in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Systematic Review CD000937.
Mardones-Santander F, Rosso P, Stekel A, Ahumada EL, laguno S,
Pizarro F, Salinas J, Vial I & Walter T (1988). Effect of a milk-based food
supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight
Chilean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47,413-419.
McDonald EC, Pollit E, Mueller WH, Hsueh AM & Sherwin R
(1981). The Bacon-Chow study: maternal nutritional supplementation and birth
weight of offspring. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mikhail MS, Anyaegbunam A, Garfield D, Palan PR, Basu J &
Romney SL (1994). Pre-eclampsia and antioxidant nutrients: decreased plasma
levels of reduced ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in women
with pre-eclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mora JO, de Paredes P, Wagner M, de Navarro L, Suescun J,
Christiansen N & Herrera MG (1979). Nutritional supplementation and outcome
of pregnancy. I. Birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
32, pp. 455-462.
Murphy JF, O'Riordan J, Newcombe RG, Coles EC, & Pearson JF
(1986). Relation of haemoglobin levels in first and second trimesters to outcome
of pregnancy. The Lancet 1, pp. 992-995.
Nelen WLDM, Blom HJ, Thomas CMG, Steegers EAP, Boers GHJ &
Eskens KAB (1998). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism affects the
change in homocysteine and folate concentrations from low dose folic acid
supplementation in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Journal of
Nielsen CC, Islam MA, Thilsted SH & Ishrat F (1992). Why do
some families become defaulters in a hospital based nutrition rehabilitation
follow-up programme? Tropical and Geographic Medicine 44,346-351.
Osendarp SJM, Baqui AH, Wahed MA, Arifeen SE, van Raaij JMA
& Fuchs GJ (2000). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of
zinc supplementation during pregnancy outcome in Bangladeshi urban poor.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71,114-119.
Pharoah POD (1993). Iodine-supplementation trials. American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57(suppl),276S-279S.
Prentice AM, Whitehead RG, Watkinson M, Lamb WH & Cole TJ
(1983). Prenatal dietary supplementation of African women and birthweight.
The Lancet i, 489-492.
Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V & Dhole S(1996). Calcium
supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet
Gynaecol Res 22,425-430.
Ramakrisham U, Manjrekar R, Rivera J, Gonzales-Cosio T &
Martorell R (1999). Micronutrients and pregnancy outcome: A review of the
literature. Nutrition Research 19,103-159.
Roberts JM & Hubel CA (1999). Is oxidative stress the link
in the two-stage model of pre-eclampsia? [comment]. The Lancet
Roberts JM & Redman CW (1993). Pre-eclampsia: more than
pregnancy-induced hypertension [published erratum appears in Lancet 1993 Aug
21;342(8869):504] [see comments]. The Lancet 341,1447-1454.
Ronsmans C, Campbell O & Collumbien M (1999). slight
modifications in definitions could alter interpretation of results. British
Medical Journal 319,1201.
Ross SM, Nel E & Naeye RL (1985). Differing effects of low
and high bulk maternal dietary supplements during pregnancy. Early Hum
Sachdev HPS (1999). No magic pills exist for educing mortality
related to pregnancy. British Medical Journal 319,1201.
Sanchez-Ramos L, Briones DK, Kaunitz AM, Delvalle GO, Gaudier FL
& Walker CD (1994). Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension by calcium
supplementation in angiotensin II-sensitive patients. Obstetrics &
Sautier D (1991). Facteurs associés au retard de taille
d'enfants de 0 à 5 ans dans une vallée andine. Cahiers Santé
Scholl TO & Hediger ML (1994). Anemia and iron-deficiency
anemia: compilation of data on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition 59(suppl),492S-501S.
Scholl TO & Johnson WG (2000). Folic acid: influence on
outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Scholl TO & Reilly T (2000). Anemia, iron and pregnancy
outcome. Journal of Nutrition 130,443S-447S.
Shaarawy M, Aref A, Emad Salem M & Sheiba M (1998). Radical
scavenging antioxidants in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. International Journal
of Gynecology and Obstetrics 60,123-128.
Steer PJ (2000). Maternal hemoglobin concentration and birth
weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Svanberg B, Arvidson B & Norby A (1976). Absoption of
supplemental iron during pregnancy - a longitudinal study with repeated
bone-marrow studies and absorption measurements. Acta Obstet Gynecol
Tamura T & Goldenberg RL (1996). Zinc nutriture and
pregnancy outcome. Nutrition Research 16,139-181.
Van Wouwe JP (1989). Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of
acrodermatitis enteropathica. European Journal of Pediatrics
Villar J & Belizan JM (2000). Same nutrient, different
hypotheses: disparities in trials of calcium supplementation during pregnancy.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71,1375S-1379S.
Villar J & Repke JT (1990). Calcium supplementation during
pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. American
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 163,1124-1131.
Villar J, Repke JT, Belizan JM & Pareja G (1987). Calcium
supplementation reduces blood pressure during pregnancy: results of a randomized
controlled clinical trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 70,317-322.
West KP Jr., Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha
SP, Connor PB, Dali SM, Christian P, Pokhrel RP & Sommer A (1999). Double
blind, cluster randomised trial of low dos supplementation with vitamin A or
b carotene on mortality related pregnancy in Nepal. British Medical
WHO (1968). Nutritional Anaemias. Report of WHO Scientific Group
(Technical Report Series No. 405).
WHO/FAO (1992). International conference on nutrition.
Nutrition and development: a global assessment. FAO/WHO, Rome.
Wouters MG, Boers GHJ & Blom HJ (1993).
Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early
pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 60,820-825.
Yanik FF, Amanvervez R, Yanik A, Celik C & Kokcu A (1999).
Pre-eclampsia associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased serum
vitamin E levels. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics