Cover Image
close this book04. Micronutrients and Pregnancy Outcome
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSummary
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsIron
View the documentVitamin A
View the documentFolic Acid
View the documentZinc
View the documentIodine
View the documentMagnesium
View the documentCalcium
View the documentVitamin C
View the documentVitamin B1 (Thiamine), Vitamin B6, (Pyridoxine), Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentReferences


Adair LS & Pollit E (1985). Outcome of maternal nutritional supplementation: a comprehensive review of the Bacon-Chow study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41,948-978.

Allen LH (2000b). Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl),1280S-1284S.

Allen LH (2000a). Pregnancy and iron deficiency: unresolved issues. Nutrition Reviews 55,91-101.

Antonov AN (1947). Children born during the siege of Leningrad in 1942. Journal of Pediatrics 30,250-259.

Atallah AN, Hofmeyr GJ & Duley L (2000). Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Systematic Review pp. CD001059.

Azaïs-Braesco V & Pascal G (2000). Vitamin A in pregnancy: requirements and safety limits. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl),1325S-1333S.

Barrett JFR, Whittaker PG, Williams JG & Lind T (1994). Iron absorption during normal pregnancy: a study using isotopes. British Medical Journal 309,79-82.

Beard JL (2000). Effectiveness and strategies of iron supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl),1288S-1294S.

Beaton GH, Martorell R, Aronson KJ, Edmonston B, McCabe GP, Ross AC & Harvey B (1993). Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries. CIDA, Toronto.

Belizan JM, Villar J, Bergel E, del Pino A, Di Fulvio S, Galliano SV & Kattan C (1997). Long-term effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised controlled trial [see comments]. British Medical Journal 315,281-285.

Belizan JM, Villar J, Gonzalez L, Campodonico L & Bergel E (1991). Calcium supplementation to prevent hypertensive disorders of pregnancy [see comments]. New England Journal of Medicine 325,1399-1405.

Botto LD & Yang Q (2000). 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants and congenital anomalies: A HuGe review. American Journal of Epidemiology 151, 862-877.

Casanueva E, Magana L, Pfeffer F & Baez A (1991). Incidence of premature rupture of membranes in pregnant women with low leukocyte levels of vitamin C. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 401-405.

Chappell LC, Seed PT, Briley AL, Kelly FJ, Lee R, Hunt BJ, Parmar K, Bewley SJ, Shennan AH, Steer PJ & Poston L (1999). Effects of antioxidants on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women at increased risk: a randomised trial. The Lancet 354, 810-816.

Cherry FF, Sandstead HH, Rojas P, Johnson LK, Batson HK & Wang XB (1989). Adolescent pregnancy: associations among body weight, zinc nutriture, and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50,945-954.

Chi I, Agoestina T & Harbin J (1981). Maternal mortality at twelve teaching hospitals in Indonesia - an epidemiological analysis. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 19,259-266.

Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L & Coovadia HM (1999). Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. Aids 13,1517-1524.

Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Pridmore B, Bryce R, Duggan P, Hague WM & Robinson JS (1999). Calcium supplementation in nulliparous women for the prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and preterm birth: an Australian randomized trial. FRACOG and the ACT Study Group. Australian New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 39,12-18.

Delange F (1994). The disorders induced by iodine deficiency. Thyroid 4, 107-128.

Delange F (1998).. Risks and benefits of iodine supplementation. The Lancet 351, 923-924.

Dreyfuss M (1998). Anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy: ethiologies and effects on birth outcomes in Nepal. PhD dissertation. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.

Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, Nestel P, El Amin A & Mohamed KA (1997). Dietary vitamin A intake in relation to child growth. Epidemiology 8,402-407.

Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Urassa EJN, McGrath N, Mwakagile D, Antelman G, Mbise R, Herrera G, Kapiga S, Willet W & Hunter D (1998). Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1 infected women in Tanzania. The Lancet 351,1477-1482.

Godfrey KM & Barker DJP (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl),1344S-1352S.

Greenberg BL, Semba RD, Vink PE, Farley JJ, Sivapalasingam M, Steketee RW, Thea DM & Schoenbaum EE (1997). Vitamin A deficiency and maternal-infant transmission of HIV in two metropolitan areas in the United States. Aids 11,325-332.

Gülmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ & Oosthuisen MM (1997). Antioxidants in the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia: an explanatory randomised controlled dial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 104,689-696.

Hallberg L (1988). Iron balance in pregnancy. Vitamins and minerals in pregnancy and lactation (ed Berger, H.), pp. 115-127. Nestec Ltd., Vevey/Raven Press Ltd., New York.

Halliwell B (1994). Free radicals, antioxidants, and human diseases: curiosity, cause, or consequence? The Lancet 344,721-724.

Hambidge KM, Nelder KH & Walravens PA (1975). Zinc, and congenital malformations. The Lancet 1(7906),577-578.

Herrera JA, Arevalo-Herrera M & Herrera S (1998). Prevention of preeclampsia by linoleic acid and calcium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 91,585-590.

Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Browdy BL, Coulson A H, Clark VA, Settlage RH & Smith JC Jr. (1985). Zinc supplementation during pregnancy in low-income teenagers of Mexican descent: effects on selected blood constituents and on progress and outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42,815-828.

Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE, Faraji B, Swendseid ME, Coulson AH, Clark VA, Browdy BL, Cabalum T & Smith JC Jr. (1984). Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: effects on selected blood constituents and on progress and outcome of pregnancy in low-income women of Mexican descent. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40,508-521.

Jameson S (1993). Zinc status in pregnancy: the effect of zinc therapy on perinatal mortality, prematurity, and placental ablation. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 678,178-192.

Jonsson B, Hauge B, Larsen MF & Hald F (1996). Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 75,725-729.

King JC (2000). Determinants of maternal zinc status during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71,1334S-1343S.

Kynast G & Saling E (1986). Effect of oral zinc application during pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest 21,117-123.

Lechtig A, Delgado H, Yarbrough C, Habicht JP, Martorell R & Klein RE (1975b). A simple assessment of risk of low birth weight to select women for nutritional intervention. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 125,25-34.

Lechtig A, Habicht JP, Delgado H, Klein RE, Yarbrough C & Martorell R (1975a). Effect of food supplementation on birth weight. Pediatrics 56,508-520.

Llewellyn-Jones D (1965). Sever anaemia in pregnancy (as seen in Kuala-Lumpur, Malaysia). Australian New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 5,191-197.

Lopez-Jaramillo P, Delgado F, Jacome P, Teran E, Ruano C & Rivera J (1997). Calcium supplementation and the risk of preeclampsia in Ecuadorian pregnant teenagers. Obstetrics & Gynecology 90, 62-167.

Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Felix C & Lopez A (1990). Dietary calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy hypertension [letter] [see comments]. The Lancet 335,293.

Lopez-Jaramillo P, Narvaez M, Weigel RM & Yepez R (1989). Calcium supplementation reduces the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in an Andes population. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 96,648-655.

Lumey LH (1988). Obstetric performance of women after in utero exposure to the Dutch famine (1944-1945). Colombia University.

Lumey LH (1992). Decreased birthweights in infants after maternal in utero exposure to the Dutch famine of 1944-1945. Paedriatr Perinat Epidemiol 6,240-253.

Lumley J, Watson M & Bower C (2000). Periconceptual supplementation with folate and/or multivitamins for preventing neural tube defects (Cochrane review). The Cochrane Library Update Software, Oxford.

Mahomed K (2000). Iron supplementation in pregnancy (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 2 Update Software, Oxford.

Mahomed K, James DK, Golding J & McCabe R (1989). Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: a double blind randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 299,826-830.

Makrides M & Crowther CA (2000). Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Systematic Review CD000937.

Mardones-Santander F, Rosso P, Stekel A, Ahumada EL, laguno S, Pizarro F, Salinas J, Vial I & Walter T (1988). Effect of a milk-based food supplement on maternal nutritional status and fetal growth in underweight Chilean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47,413-419.

McDonald EC, Pollit E, Mueller WH, Hsueh AM & Sherwin R (1981). The Bacon-Chow study: maternal nutritional supplementation and birth weight of offspring. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34,2133-2133.

Mikhail MS, Anyaegbunam A, Garfield D, Palan PR, Basu J & Romney SL (1994). Pre-eclampsia and antioxidant nutrients: decreased plasma levels of reduced ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in women with pre-eclampsia. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 171,150-157.

Mora JO, de Paredes P, Wagner M, de Navarro L, Suescun J, Christiansen N & Herrera MG (1979). Nutritional supplementation and outcome of pregnancy. I. Birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, pp. 455-462.

Murphy JF, O'Riordan J, Newcombe RG, Coles EC, & Pearson JF (1986). Relation of haemoglobin levels in first and second trimesters to outcome of pregnancy. The Lancet 1, pp. 992-995.

Nelen WLDM, Blom HJ, Thomas CMG, Steegers EAP, Boers GHJ & Eskens KAB (1998). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism affects the change in homocysteine and folate concentrations from low dose folic acid supplementation in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages. Journal of Nutrition 128,1336-1341.

Nielsen CC, Islam MA, Thilsted SH & Ishrat F (1992). Why do some families become defaulters in a hospital based nutrition rehabilitation follow-up programme? Tropical and Geographic Medicine 44,346-351.

Osendarp SJM, Baqui AH, Wahed MA, Arifeen SE, van Raaij JMA & Fuchs GJ (2000). A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy outcome in Bangladeshi urban poor. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71,114-119.

Pharoah POD (1993). Iodine-supplementation trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57(suppl),276S-279S.

Prentice AM, Whitehead RG, Watkinson M, Lamb WH & Cole TJ (1983). Prenatal dietary supplementation of African women and birthweight. The Lancet i, 489-492.

Purwar M, Kulkarni H, Motghare V & Dhole S(1996). Calcium supplementation and prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 22,425-430.

Ramakrisham U, Manjrekar R, Rivera J, Gonzales-Cosio T & Martorell R (1999). Micronutrients and pregnancy outcome: A review of the literature. Nutrition Research 19,103-159.

Roberts JM & Hubel CA (1999). Is oxidative stress the link in the two-stage model of pre-eclampsia? [comment]. The Lancet 354,788-789.

Roberts JM & Redman CW (1993). Pre-eclampsia: more than pregnancy-induced hypertension [published erratum appears in Lancet 1993 Aug 21;342(8869):504] [see comments]. The Lancet 341,1447-1454.

Ronsmans C, Campbell O & Collumbien M (1999). slight modifications in definitions could alter interpretation of results. British Medical Journal 319,1201.

Ross SM, Nel E & Naeye RL (1985). Differing effects of low and high bulk maternal dietary supplements during pregnancy. Early Hum Dev 10,295-302.

Sachdev HPS (1999). No magic pills exist for educing mortality related to pregnancy. British Medical Journal 319,1201.

Sanchez-Ramos L, Briones DK, Kaunitz AM, Delvalle GO, Gaudier FL & Walker CD (1994). Prevention of pregnancy-induced hypertension by calcium supplementation in angiotensin II-sensitive patients. Obstetrics & Gynecology 84,349-353.

Sautier D (1991). Facteurs associés au retard de taille d'enfants de 0 à 5 ans dans une vallée andine. Cahiers Santé 1,388-396.

Scholl TO & Hediger ML (1994). Anemia and iron-deficiency anemia: compilation of data on pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59(suppl),492S-501S.

Scholl TO & Johnson WG (2000). Folic acid: influence on outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl),1295S-1303S.

Scholl TO & Reilly T (2000). Anemia, iron and pregnancy outcome. Journal of Nutrition 130,443S-447S.

Shaarawy M, Aref A, Emad Salem M & Sheiba M (1998). Radical scavenging antioxidants in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 60,123-128.

Steer PJ (2000). Maternal hemoglobin concentration and birth weight. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(suppl),1285S-1287S.

Svanberg B, Arvidson B & Norby A (1976). Absoption of supplemental iron during pregnancy - a longitudinal study with repeated bone-marrow studies and absorption measurements. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 48(suppl),87-108.

Tamura T & Goldenberg RL (1996). Zinc nutriture and pregnancy outcome. Nutrition Research 16,139-181.

Van Wouwe JP (1989). Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of acrodermatitis enteropathica. European Journal of Pediatrics 149,2-8.

Villar J & Belizan JM (2000). Same nutrient, different hypotheses: disparities in trials of calcium supplementation during pregnancy. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71,1375S-1379S.

Villar J & Repke JT (1990). Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may reduce preterm delivery in high-risk populations. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 163,1124-1131.

Villar J, Repke JT, Belizan JM & Pareja G (1987). Calcium supplementation reduces blood pressure during pregnancy: results of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 70,317-322.

West KP Jr., Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha SP, Connor PB, Dali SM, Christian P, Pokhrel RP & Sommer A (1999). Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dos supplementation with vitamin A or b carotene on mortality related pregnancy in Nepal. British Medical Journal 318,570-551.

WHO (1968). Nutritional Anaemias. Report of WHO Scientific Group (Technical Report Series No. 405).

WHO/FAO (1992). International conference on nutrition. Nutrition and development: a global assessment. FAO/WHO, Rome.

Wouters MG, Boers GHJ & Blom HJ (1993). Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor in women with unexplained recurrent early pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril 60,820-825.

Yanik FF, Amanvervez R, Yanik A, Celik C & Kokcu A (1999). Pre-eclampsia associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased serum vitamin E levels. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 64,27-33.