Cover Image
close this book08. Maternal Mortality and Unsafe Abortion: A Heavy Burden for Developing Countries
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSummary
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
View the documentThe Complex Relationship between Abortion, Unplanned Pregnancy, and Family Planning
View the documentConclusion
View the documentReferences


Ali M, Cleland J (1995). Contraceptive discontinuation in six developing countries: a cause-specific analysis. Int Fam Plann Perspec 21(3),92-97.

Bankole A, Singh S, Haas T (1998). Reasons why women have induced abortions: evidence from 27 countries. International Family Planning Perspectives 24(3),117-127 & 152.

Benson J, Nicholson LA, Gaffikin L, Kinott SN (1996). Complication of unsafe abortion in sub-Sahara: a review. Health Policy Plann 11,117-31.

Berglund S, Liljestrand J, Marin FdM, Salgado N, Zelaya E (1997). The background of adolescent pregnancies in Nicaragua: a qualitative approach. Soc Sci Med 44(1),1-12.

Blanchard K, Winikoff B, Ellertson C (1999). Misoprostol used alone for the termination of early pregnancy. Contraception 59,209-217.

Cook RJ, Dickens BM, Bliss LE (1999) International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998. Am J Public Health 89,579-586.

Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association. Induced termination of pregnancy before and after Roe v Wade: trends in the mortality and morbidity of women. JAMA 1992, 268,231-39.

David HP (1992). Abortion in Europe, 1920-91: a public health perspective. Stud Fam Planning 23(1),-22.

De Jonge ETM, Pattison RC, Mantel GC (1999). Termination of pregnancy (TOP) in South Africa in its first year: is TOP getting on top of the problem of unsafe abortion, Sexual and Reproductive Health Bulletin 7,14-15.

Diadhiou F, Goyaux N, Faye O, Thonneau P (1999). A neglected but prevalent tragedy. BMJ 318,1526.

Dickson-Tetteh K, Rees H (1999). efforts to reduce abortion-related mortality in South Africa. In Safe Motherhood Initiatives: critical issues by M Berer and TKS Ravindran, Reproductive Health Matters, Blackwell Sciences Limited, London, 190-197.

Faundes A, Hardy E (1997). Illegal abortion: consequences for women’s health and the health care system. Int J Gynecol Obstet 58,77-83.

Figa-Talamenca I, Sinnathuray TA, Yusof K et al. (1986). Illegal abortion: an attempt to assess its cost to the health services and its incidence in the community. International Journal of Health Services 16(3),375-389.

Fu H, Darroch JE, Haas T, Ranjit N (1999). Contraceptive failure rates: new estimates from the 1995 national survey of family growth. Family Planning Perspectives 31(2),56-63.

Glasier et al. (1992). Mifepristone compared with high-dose estrogen and progestogen for emergency postcoital contraception. N Engl J Med; 327:1041-1044.

Gober P (1997). The role of access in explaining state abortion rates. Soc Sci Med 44(7),1003-1016.

Gôrgen R, Maier B, Diesfeld HJ (1993). Problems related to schoolgirl pregnancies in Burkina Faso. Studies in Family Planning 24(5),283-294.

Goyaux N, Yace-Soumah F, Welffens-Ekra C, Thonneau P (1999). Abortion complications in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). Contraception 60,107-109.

Hakim-Elahi E, Tovell HMN, Burnhill MS (1990). Complications of first-trimester abortion: a report of 170,000 cases. Obstet Gynecol 76,129-35.

Henshaw S, Van Vort J (1994). Abortion services in the United States, 1991 and 1992. Family Planning Perspectives 26,100-106 & 112.

Henshaw SK (1998). Unintended pregancy in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives 30,24-29 & 46.

Henshaw SK, Krost K (1996). Abortion patients in 1994-1995: characteristics and contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives 28,40-147 & 158.

Henshaw SK, Singh S, Haas T (1999). The incidence of abortion worldwide. International Family Planning Perspectives 25(S),S30-S38.

Huntington et al. (1998). The postabortion caseload in Egyptian hospitals: a descriptive study. Int Fam Plann Persp 24(1),25-31.

Johnson BR et al. (1993). Costs and resource utilization for the treatment of incomplete abortion in Kenya and Mexico. Soc Sci Med 36(11),1443-1453.

Johnson BR, Horga M, Andronache L (1993). Contraception and abortion in Romania. Lancet; 341:875-78.

Kaupova N, Nukusheva S, Biktasheva H, Goyaux N, Thonneau P (1998). Trends and causes of maternal mortality in Kazakhstan. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 63,175-181.

Kay BJ et al. (1997). An analysis of the cost of incomplete abortion to the public health sector in South Africa. South African Medical Journal 87(4),442-447.

Knudsen LB (1997). Induced abortions in Denmark. Acta Obstetrica & Gynecologia Scandinavia Suppl. 76(164),54-59.

Kulczycki A (1995). Abortion policy in postcommunist Poland. Population and Development Review 21(3),471-505.

Kunins H, Rosenfield A (1991). Abortion: a legal and public health perspective. Annu Rev Publ Health 12,361-82.

Lawson PHW (1994). Abortion mortality, United States 1972 - 1987. Am J Obstet Gynecol 171(5),1365-1372.

Le Cœur S, Pictet G, M’Pelé P, Lallemant M (1998). Direct estimation of maternal mortality in Africa. The Lancet 352,1525-1526.

Machungo F, Zanconato G, Bergstöm S (1997). Reproductive characteristics and post-abortion health consequences in women undergoing illegal and legal abortion in Maputo. Soc Sci Med 45(11),1607-1613.

Madebo T, Tsadic TG (1993). A six month prospective study on different aspects of abortion. Ethiop Med J 31,165-172.

Maine D and Rosenfield A (1999). The safe motherhood initiative: why has it stalled? Am J Public Health 89,480-482.

Makinwa-Adebusoye P, Singh S, Audam S (1997). Nigerian health professionals’ perceptions about abortion practice. Int Fam Plann Pers 23,155-161.

Manning WD, Longmore MA, Giordano P (2000). The relationship context of contraceptive use at the first intercourse. Family Planning Perspective 32(3),104-110.

Misago C, Fonseca W, Correia L, Fernandes LM, Campbell O (1998). Determinants of abortion among women admitted to hospitals in Fortaleza, North Eastern Brazil. Int J Epidemiol 27,833-839.

Murray CJL, Lopez AD (1997). Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: global burden of disease study. Lancet 349,1269-76.

Nunes FE, Delph YM (1997). Making abortion law reform work: steps and slips in Guyana. Reproductive Health Matters 9,66-76.

Paxman JM, Rizo A, Brown L, Benson J (1993). The clandestine epidemic: the practice of unsafe abortion in Latin America. Studies Family Planning 24(4),205-226.

Popov AA (1991). Family planning and induced abortion in the USSR: basic health and demographic characteristics. Studies in Family Planning 22,368-377.

Programme’s Task Force on Postovulatory Methods of Fertility Regulation/ WHO Special programme of Research, Development and Research training in Human Reproduction (1998). Lancet 352,428-433.

Rahman A, Katzive L, Henshaw SK (1998). A global review of laws on induced abortion, 1985-1997. International Family Planning Perspectives 24(2),56-64.

Rees H et al. (1997). The epidemiology of incomplete abortion in South Africa. South African Medical Journal 87(4),432-437.

Renne E (1996). The pregnancy that doesn’t stay: the practice and perception of abortion by Ekiti Yoruba women. Soc Sci Med 42(4),483-494.

Rogo KO (1993). Induced abortion in Sub-Saharan Africa. East Afr Med J 70,386-95.

Ronsmans C, Vanneste A-M, Chakraborty J, van Ginneken J (1997). Decline in maternal mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh: a cautionary tale. Lancet 350,1810-14.

Serbanescu F, Morris L, Stupp P, Stanescu A (1995). The impact of recent policy changes on fertility, abortion, and contraceptive use in Romania. Stu Fam Plann 26,76-87.

Shapiro D, Tambashe BO (1994). The impact of women’s employment and education on contraceptive use and abortion in Kinshasa, Zaire. Stud Fam Plann 25(2),96-110.

Shapiro D, Tambashe O (1994). The impact of women’s employment and education on contraceptive use and abortion in Kinshasa, Zaire. Stud Fam Planning 25(2),96-110.

Silvestre L, Dubois C, Renault M, Rezvani Y, Beaulieu E-E, Ulmann A (1990). Voluntary interruption of pregnancy with mifepristone (RU486) and a prostaglandin analogue: a large-scale French experience. N Engl J Med 332,645-48.

Singh K, Ratnam SS (1998). The influence of abortion legislation on maternal mortality. Int J Gynecol Obstet 63 (Suppl. 1),S123-S129.

Singh S, Sedgh G (1997). The relationship of abortion to trends in contraception and fertility in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. Int Fam Plann Perspec 23(3),4-14.

Singh S, Wulf D, Jones H (1997). Health professionals’ perceptions about induced abortion in South Central and Southeast Asia. Int Fam Plann Persp 23,59-67 & 72.

Sjöstrand M, Quist V, Jacobson A, Bergström S, Rogo KO (1995). Socio-economic client characteristics and consequences of abortion in Nairobi. East African Medical Journal 72(5),325-332.

Skjeldestad FE (1997). Increased number of induced abortions in Norway after media coverage of adverse vascular events from the use of third-generation oral contraceptives. Contraception 55,11-14.

Stephenson P, Wagner M, Badea M, Serbanescu F (1992). The public health consequences of restricted induced abortion - lessons from Romania. Am J Public Health 82,1328-31.

Susser M (1992). Induced abortion and health as a value. Am J Public Health 82,1323-1324. Editorial.

The Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) (1999). Sharing responsibility: women, society and abortion worldwide. New York; AGI.

Thonneau P, Fougeyrollas B, Ducor B, Boubilley D, Dif J, Lalande M, Soulat C (1998). Complications of abortion performed under local anesthesia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 81,59-63.

United Nations / Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis (1997). World population prospects: the 1996 revision. New York, N.Y., USA, United Nations.

Varkey SJ (2000). Abortion services in South Africa: available yet not accessible to all. Int Fam Plann Pers 26,55-161.

Webb AMC et al. (1992). Comparison of Yuzpe regimen, danazol, and mifepristone RU 486 in oral post-coital contraception. BMJ 305,927-931.

Weil O and Fernandez H (1999). Is safe motherhood an orphan initiative? Lancet 354,940-43.

Westoff CF, Bankole A. (2000). Trends in the demand for family limitation in developing countries. International Family Planning Perspectives 26,56-62 & 97.

WHO (1995). Complications of abortion: technical and managerial guidelines. Geneva; WHO.

WHO/Division of Reproductive Health. Unsafe abortion. Global and regional estimates of incidence of and mortality due to unsafe abortion, with a listing of available country data (WHO/RHT/MSM/97.16) (1998). Geneva, Switzerland. World Health Organization (WHO).

World Health Organization and UNICEF (1996). Revised 1990 estimates of maternal mortality. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO & UNICEF; WHO/FRH/MSM 96.11.