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close this book Microlivestock - Little-Known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future
View the document Acknowledgments
View the document Preface
View the document Introduction
Open this folder and view contents Part I : Microbreeds
Open this folder and view contents Part II : Poultry
Open this folder and view contents Part III : Rabbits
Open this folder and view contents Part IV : Rodents
Open this folder and view contents Part V : Deer and Antelope
Open this folder and view contents Part VI : Lizards
Open this folder and view contents Part VII Others
Open this folder and view contents Appendixes
View the document Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID)

Board on Science and Tecnology for International Development

National Research Council

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competence and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Their is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

The Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID) of the Office of International Affairs addresses a range of issues arising from the ways in which science and technology in developing countries can stimulate and complement the complex processes of social and economic development. It oversees a broad program of bilateral workshops with scientific organizations in developing countries and conducts special studies.

This report was prepared by an ad hoc advisory panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Office of International Affairs, National Research Council. Staff support was funded by the Office of the Science Advisor, Agency for International Development, under Grant No. DAN-5538-G-SS-1023-00.


RALPH W. PHILLIPS, Deputy Director General (Retired), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Chairman

EDWARD S. AYENSU, Senior Advisor to the President, African Development Bank, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

BONNIE V. BEAVER, Professor of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA

KURT BENIRSCHKE, Professor of Pathology and Reproductive Medicine, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California, USA

ROY D. CRAWFORD, Professor of Animal and Poultry Genetics, Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

TONY J. CUNHA, Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus, University of Florida, Gainesville, and Dean Emeritus, School of Agriculture, California Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, USA

DAVID E. DEPPNER, Director, New Forest Project, International Center, Washington, D.C., USA

ELIZABETH L. HENSON, Executive Director, American Minor Breeds Conservancy, Pittsboro, North Carolina, USA

DONALD L. HUSS, Menard, Texas, USA (Formerly Regional Animal Production Officer, FAO, Santiago, Chile)

DAVID R. LINCICOME, Guest Scientist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA

THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Assistant Secretary for External Affairs, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA

ARNE W. NORDSKOG, Professor Emeritus, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

LINDA M. PANEPINTO, Director, Miniature Swine Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA

KURT J. PETERS, Professor of Animal Breeding and Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, West Germany, and Director of Research, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

JOHN A. PINO, Senior Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., USA

HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Program in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

MICHAEL H. ROBINSON, Director, National Zoological Park, Washington, D.C., USA

KNUT SCHMIDT-NIELSON, James B. Duke Professor of Physiology, Department of Zoology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA

ALBERT E. SOLLOD, Associate Professor and Head, Section of International Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, USA

LEE M. TALBOT, Visiting Fellow, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., USA

CLAIR E. TERRILL, Sheep and Goat Scientist, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, USA

CHRISTEN M. WEMMER, Assistant Director for Conservation, National Zoological Park, Front Royal, Virginia, USA

DANNY C. WHARTON, Associate Curator Animal Departments, New York Zoological Park, Bronx Zoo, The Bronx, New York, USA

CHARLES A. WOODS, Professor and Curator, Florida State Museum, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

THOMAS M. YUILL, Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Training, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

* * *

NOEL D. VIETMEYER, Board on Science and Technology for International Development (BOSTID), National Research Council, Washington, D.C., Microlivestock Study Director and Scientific Editor



MARK DAFFORN, Technical Writer


ELIZABETH MOUZON, Senior Secretary



The following individuals have made general contributions to the development of this book. All of the persons listed as research contacts in Appendix B also contributed - usually on one or two species that are their scientific specialty.

ASHIQ AHMAD, Wildlife Management Specialist, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan

ANGEL C. ALCALA, Division Research, Extension and Development, Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines

HARTI AMMANN, Basel, Switzerland

PATRICK ANDAU, Forest Department, Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia

S.P. ARORA, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India

S. AYYAPPAN, CIFRI, Kausabyaganga, Bhubaneswar Orissa, India

WALTER BAKHUIS, Caribbean Marine Biological Institute, Willemstad, Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

JAMES R. BARBORAK, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

PUSHKAR NATH BHAT, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

STEVE BENNETT, Curepe, Trinidad, West Indies

K.P. BLAND, Department of Physiology, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland

MELVIN BOLTON, Yeppoon, Queensland, Australia

JOSEPH BONNEMAIRE, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences Agronomiques Appliquees, Dijon, France

R.D.S. BRANCKRAERT, Faculte des Sciences Agronomiques, Universite du Burundi, Bujumbura, Burundi

PETER BRAZAITIS, Herpetology, New York Zoological Society, The Bronx, New York, USA

L. DE LA BRETONNE, JR., Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

P. BRINCK, Department of Animal Ecology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden


D. HOMER BUCK, Illinois Natural History Survey, Kinmundy, Illinois, USA

GERARDO BUDOWSKI, Natural Renewable Resources Programme, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

DAVID BUTCHER, Taronga Zoo, Mosman, New South Wales, Australia

JULIAN O. CALDECOTT, World Wildlife Fund Malaysia, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

GARY CALLIS, Texline, Texas, USA

J.K. CAMOENS, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines

A. CHRISTOPHER CARMICHAEL, The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

ROBERT H. CHABRECK, School of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

A.M. CHAGULA, Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

CHARAN CHANTALAKHANA, Department of Animal Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand

PETER R. CHEEKE, Rabbit Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

G.S. CHILD, Forest Resources Division, FAO, Rome, Italy

A.S. CHOPRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, New Delhi, India

W. Ross COCKRILL 29 Downs Park West, Bristol, England, BS6 7QH

CRISOSTOMO CORTES, Dairy Promotion and Extension Section, Dairy Development Division, Manila, Philippines

WYLAND CRIPE, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

A. BEN DAVID, Holon, Israel

C. DEVENDRA, International Development Research Centre, Singapore

RODNEY DILLINGER, International Agency for Apiculture Development, Rockford, Illinois, USA

DIRECTOR, Natal Parks Board, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

ROLLANDE DUMONT, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences Agronomiques Appliquees, Dijon, France

N.G. EHIOBU, Department of Agricultural Sciences, College of Education, Agbor, Nigeria

DONALD FARNER, Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

JOHN A. FERGUSON, Overseas Development Administration, Eland House, London, England

ABELARDO FERRER D., Quinta Nueva Exparta, San Bernardino, Caracas, Venezuela

LYNWOOD A. FIEDLER, Section of International Programs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver Wildlife Research Center, Denver, Colorado, USA

H. FISCHER, Tropical Science Centre, Division of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, West Germany

J. FURTADO, Commonwealth Science Council, London, England

FRANK GOLLEY, Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA

E. GONZALES J., Instituto de Produccion Animal, Universidad Central de Venezuela, El Limon-Maracay, Venezuela

GRAHAM GOUDIE, Mainland Holdings, Lae, Papua New Guinea

ALISTAIR GRAHAM, Tanglewood, Crowborough, East Sussex, England

GORDON GRIGG, Zoology, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

M.R. DE GUMAN, JR., Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, Taipei, Taiwan

COLIN P. GROVES, Department of Prehistory and Anthropology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia

J. HARDOUIN, Institut de Medicine Tropicale "Prince Leopold," Antwerp, Belgium

GEOFFREY HAWTIN, International Development Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada

GORDON HAVORD, Technical Advisory Division, UNDP, New York, New York, USA

TIN HLA, Veterinary Department, Director General's Office, Rangoon, Burma

JAMES HENTGES, Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

W.F. HOLLANDER, Department of Genetics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

RENE E. HONEGGER, Herpetology, Zurich Zoo, Zurich, Switzerland

JACK HOWARTH, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA

HUANG CHU-CHIEN, Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China

ANGUS HUTTON, Gympie, Queensland, Australia

H.A. JASIOROWSKI, Animal Production and Health Division, FAO, Rome, Italy

MUHAMMAD YAQUB JAVAID, Directorate of Fisheries, Government of the Punjab, Punjab, India

J. MANGALARAJ JOHNSON, Nudumalai Sanctuary, Vannarpet, Udagamandalani, India

MATI KAAL, Tallinn Zoo, ESSR Tallinn, USSR

STELLAN KARLSSON, Simontorp Aquaculture AB, Blentarp, Sweden

JACKSON A. KATEGILE, International Development Research Centre, Nairobi, Kenya

ROBERT E. KENWARD, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Furzebrook Research Station, Wareham, Dorset, England

JAMES M. KEARNEY, Miami, Florida, USA

F. WAYNE KING, Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Florida, USA

H.-G. KLOS Zoologischer Garten Berlin, Berlin, West Germany

NELS M. KONNERUP, Boom International, Stanwood, Washington, USA

NAVU KWAPENA, Office of Environment and Conservation, Boroko, Papua New Guinea

THOMAS E. LACHER, Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington, USA

JOHN K. LOOSLI, Gainesville, Florida, USA

PETER LUTZ, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA

CRAIG MACFARLAND, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

CONSTANCE M. MCCORKLE, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA

ROBERT E. MCDOWELL, Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

JEFFREY A. MCNEELY, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland

ADRIAN G. MARSHALL, Institute of South-East Asian Biology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland

RICHARD R. MARSHALL, Veterinary Medicine, Sutter Hospitals Medical Research Foundation, Sacramento, California, USA

G.H.G. MARTIN, Department of Zoology, Kenyatta University College, Nairobi, Kenya

IAN L. MASON, Edinburgh, Scotland

JOHN C. MASON, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., Canada

J. MAYO MARTIN, Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas, USA

YOLANDA MATAMOROS, Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica

ROBIN MCKERGON, Livestock Development Corporation, Lae, Papua New Guinea

M. MGHENI, Faculty of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania

P. MONGIN, Station de Recherches Avicoles, INRA-Centre de Tours, Nouzilly, Monnaie, France

JOSE ROBERTO DE ALENCAR MOREIRA, Agricultural Research Center of the Humid Tropics, Belem, Para, Brazil

W.L.R. OLIVER, Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands, United Kingdom

WERNER PAUWELS, Basel, Switzerland

W.J.A. PAYNE, Worcester, England

IAN PLAYER, Wilderness Leadership School, Bellair, Natal, South Africa

JAMES H. POWELL, JR., Plainview, Texas, USA

WILLIAM R. PRITCHARD, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California, USA

HECTOR HUGO LI PUN, International Development Research Centre, Bogota, Colombia

VICENTE T. QUIRANTE, Small Ruminant Collaborative Research Project, Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines

DAN RATTNER, The Institute of Animal Research, Kibbutz Lahav, D.N. Negev, Israel

C.V. REDDY, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India

RHOEHEIT, Institute of Applied Science and Technology, University Campus, Turkeyen, Guyana

CHARLES T. ROBBINS, Department of Zoology, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA

CARMEN MA. ROJAS G., CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

D.H.L. ROLLINSON, Sardinia, Italy

JULIO E. SANCHEZ P., Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa Rica

JEFF SAYER, World Conservation Centre, Gland, Switzerland

G. SEIFERT, Tropical Cattle Research Centre, CSIRO, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia

ANDRES ELOY SEIJAS, Servicio Nacional de Fauna Silvestre, Maracay, Venezuela

S.K. SHAH, Institute of Animal Sciences, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan

SIEH CHENXIA, Department of Animal Science, Nanjing Agricultural College, Nanjing, People's Republic of China

B.P. SINGH, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Chandra Sekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

C. CATIBOG SINHA, Forest Research Institute, College, Laguna, Philippines

A.J. SMITH, Tropical Animal Health, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, Great Britain

A. MITHAT EFENDI, Ankara, Turkey

HENRY STODDARD, Shamrock Veterinary Clinic and Fisheries, Cross City, Florida, USA

SUKUT SULARSASA, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Gadjalu Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

D.L. SUTTON, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA

NICHOLAS SMYTHE, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama

J. SZUMIEC, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Fish Culture Station, Chybie, Poland

N. TABUNAKAWAI, Ministry of Primary Industries, Suva, Fiji

FRANK M. THOMPSON, Wild Animal Brokers, Bradenton, Florida, USA

ALLEN D. TILLMAN, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA

DON TULLOCH, Winnellie, Northern Territory, Australia

CONRADO A. VALDEZ, Dairy Development Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Manila, Philippines

LUIS VARONA, Havana, Cuba

PRAN VOHRA, Department of Avian Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, California, USA

ANTOON DE VOS Whitford, Auckland, New Zealand

GRAHAME WEBB, Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Winnellie, Northern Territory, Australia

DAGMAR WERNER, Fundacion Pro Iguana Verde, Heredia, Costa Rica

GARY WETTERBERG, Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C., USA

CHARLES H. WHARTON, Clayton, Georgia, USA

F.W. BERT WHEELER, College Station, Texas, USA

ROMULUS WHITAKER, Madras Crocodile Bank, Perur, Tamil Nadu, India

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL, New York Zoological Society, The Bronx, New York, USA

R.R. YEO, USDA-ARS, University of California, Davis, California, USA

BRUCE A. YOUNG, Department of Animal Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

CHAROON YOUNGPRAPAKORN, The Samutprakan Crocodile Farm and Zoo, Samutprakan, Thailand

THOMAS M. YUILL School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

W. ZEILLER, Miami Seaquarium, Miami, Florida, USA