|Volume 1: No. 29|
The Office of Personnel Management reports that only 15% of the upper government echelons (GS-15 and above, starting salary $61,643) are women. In contrast, a majority of all government employees are women. [Ned Zeman, Newsweek, 9/23.] In defense of the system, though, clerks and secretaries would be foolish to believe they are on management career paths. The 15% figure may be damning, but the sex ratio at lower levels is irrelevant. If you want to be in the upper levels, you have to start in the upper levels.
A 1989-90 Census Bureau study shows that higher education has moved blacks and women ahead, but that they haven't caught up with white men. Factors confounded with race include job location (city vs. suburbs), type of company (e.g., wholesaling vs. services), and time with a company. On average, white men with four years or more of college earned $41,090 in 1989; black men, $31,380; white women, $27,440; black women, $26,730. For those with only high school educations, the figures are $26,510, $20,280, $16,910, and $16,440. A Labor Department report attributed much of the difference at large corporations to entry-level training and management-track recruitment practices. [AP. SJ Mercury, 9/20.]
Another Census Bureau report shows that small businesses owned by white men tend to be capital intensive (e.g., mining and manufacturing) or in wholesaling, finance, insurance, and real estate, with average receipts of $189,000/year. Minority ownership is strongest in lower-revenue businesses such as retailing (19%), services (46%), transportation, public utilities, and agriculture. Small businesses owned by Asian (incl. Pacific Islander) men average $107,000; Hispanic, $66,000, black, $50,000; and American Indian and Alaska Native, $47,000. Corresponding figures for women are: white, $70,000; Asian,, $64,000; black, $41,000; Hispanic, $38,000; and Native, $32,000. Minorities and women continue to have difficulty getting loans, according to survey manager Donna McCutcheon. [AP. SJ Mercury, 9/19.] (I suppose the good news :-} is that white men find it relatively easy to get loans.)
The suicide rate is highest among white males, lowest among black females. [Newsweek, 9/30.] Perhaps it relates to expectations?