Cover Image
close this bookGenetic Variability: Implications for the Development of HIV Vaccines (UNAIDS, 1996, 16 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentClassification of HIV
View the documentGenetic variability of HIV
View the documentGeographical distribution of HIV-1 subtypes
View the documentAntigenic significance of HIV-1 genetic variability
View the documentBiological variability of HIV-1
View the documentWHO network for HIV isolation and characterization
View the documentReferences

References

1. Mertens TE, Belsey E, Stoneburner R, Low Beer D, Sato P, Burton A, Merson MH: Global estimates and epidemiology of HIV-1 infections and AIDS: Further heterogeneity in spread and impact. AIDS 1995; 8(suppl 1):S259-S272.

2. Esparza J, Osmanov S, Kallings LO: Planning for HIV vaccine trials: The World Health Organization perspective. AIDS 1991; 5(suppl 2):S159-S163.

3. World Health Organization: Scientific and public health rationale for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. AIDS 1995; 9:WHO1-WHO4.

4. Esparza J, Osmanov S: The development and evaluation of HIV vaccines. Curr Opin Infect Dis 1993; 6:218-229.

5. Esparza J, Osmanov S, Heyward WL: HIV preventive vaccines: progress to date. Drugs (in press).

6. Hilleman MR: Comparative biology and pathogenesis of AIDS and hepatitis B viruses: Related but different. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1409-1419.

7. Levy JA: HIV and the pathogenesis of AIDS. ASM Press. Washington, D.C. 1994.

8. Sharp PM, Robertson DL, Gao F, Hahn B: Origins and diversity of human immunodeficiency viruses. AIDS 1994; 4(suppl 1):S27-S42.

9. Myers G: HIV: Between past and future. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1317-1325.

10. WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: HIV-1 variation in WHO-sponsored vaccine evaluation sites: Genetic screening, sequence analysis and preliminary biological characterization of selected viral strains. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1325-1341.

11. Myers G, Korber BTM, Smith RF, Berzofski JA, Pavlakis GN: Human Retroviruses and AIDS. Theoretical Biology and Biophysics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, 1994.

12. Korber BTM, Allen EE, Farmer AD, Myers GL: Heterogeneity of HIV-1 and HIV-2. AIDS 1995; 9(suppl A):S5-S18.

13. Louwangie J, McCutchan FE, Peteers M, Brennan TP, Sanders-Buell E, Eddy GA, van der Groen G, Fransen K, Gershey-Damet G-M, Deleys R, Burke DS: Comparison of gag genes from seventy international HIV-1 isolates provides evidence of multiple genetic subtypes. AIDS 1993; 7:769-780.

14. Dumitrescu O, Kalish ML, Kliks SC, Bandea CI, Levy JA: Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from children in Romania: Identification of a new envelope subtype. J Infect Dis 1994; 169:281-288.

15. Bobkov A, Cheingson-Popov R, Garaev M, Rzaninova A, Kaleebu P, Beddows S, Bachmann MH, Mullins JI, Louwangie J, Janssens W, van der Groen G, McCutchan FE, Weber J: Identification of an env G subtype and heterogeneity of HIV-1 strains in the Russian Federation and Belarus. AIDS 1994; 8:1649-1655.

16. Janssens W, Heyndryckx L, Fransen K, Motte J, Peeters M, Nkengasong JN, Ndumbe PM, Delaporte E, Perret J-L, Atende C, Piot P, van der Groen G: Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of env subtypes G and H in Central Africa. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:877-879.

17. Nkengasong JN, Janssens W, Heyndrickx L, Fransen K, Ndumbe PM, Motte J, Leonaers A, Ngolle M, Ayuk J, Piot P, van der Groen G: Genotypic subtypes of HIV-1 in Cameroon. AIDS 1994; 8:1405-1412.

18. G L, Hauser PH, Eberle J, von Brunn A, Knapp S, Zekeng L, Tsague JM, Kaptue L: A new subtype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (MPV 5180) from Cameroon. J Virol 1994; 68:1581-1585.

19. Wain-Hobson S: The fastest genome evolution ever described: HIV variation in situ. Curr Opin Genetics and Development 1993; 3:878-883.

20. Delwart EL, Shpaer EG, Louwagie J, McCutchan FE, Grez M, Rn-Waigmann H, Mullins JI: Genetic relationships determined by a DNA heteroduplex mobility analysis of HIV-1 env genes. Science 1993; 262:1257-1261.

21. Delwart EL, Sheppard HW, Walker BD, Goudsmit J, Mullins JI: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolution in vivo tracked by DNA heteroduplex mobility assay. J Virol 1994; 68:6672-6683.

22. Weniger BG, Takebe Y, Ou C-Y, Yamazaki S: The molecular epidemiology of HIV in Asia. AIDS 1994; 8(suppl 2):S13-S28.

23. Louwagie J, Janssens W, Mascola J, Heyndryckx L, Hegerich P, van der Groen G, McCutchan FE, Burke D: Genetic diversity of the envelope glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of African origin. J Virol 1995; 69:263-271.

24. Kalish ML, Baldwin A, Raktham S, Wasi C, Luo C-C, Schochetman G, Mastro T, Young N, Vanichseni S, R-Waigmann H, von Briesen H, Mullins JI, Delwart E, Herring B, Esparza J, Heyward WL, Osmanov S: The evolving molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 envelope subtypes in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand: Implications for HIV vaccine trials. AIDS 1995; 9(in press).

25. Sabino EC, Shpaer EG, Morgado MG, Korber BTM, Daiz RS, Bongertz V, Cavalcante S, Galvao-Castro B, Mullins JI, Mayer A: Identification of HIV-1 envelope genes recombinant between subtypes B and F in two epidemiologically-linked individuals from Brazil. J Virol 1994; 68:6340-6346.

26. Robertson DL, Hahn BH, Sharp PM: Recombination in AIDS viruses. J Mol Evol 1995; 40:249-259.

27. Robertson DL, Sharp PM, McCutchan FE, Hahn BH: Recombination in HIV-1. Nature 1995; 374:124-126.

28. Sharp PM, Robertson DL, Hahn BH: Cross-species transmission and recombination of AIDS viruses. Phil Trans R Soc Lond 1995; (in press).

29. Kunanusont C, Foy HM, Kreiss JK, Rerks-Ngram S, Phanuphak P, Raktham S, Pau C-P, Young N: HIV-1 subtypes and male-to-male transmission in Thailand. Lancet 1995; 345:1078-1083.

30. Bachmann MH, Delwart EL, Shpaer EG, Lingenfelter P, Singal R, Mullins JI, and the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Rapid genetic characterization of HIV type 1 strains from four WHO-sponsored vaccine evaluation sites, using a heteroduplex mobility assay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1345-1353.

31. Casado Herrero C, Lukashov VV, Goudsmit J, van der Hoek L, Sol C, Lopez Galindez C, de Wolf F: Efficient recovery of complete HIV-1 gp120 gene from serum or plasma: Genetic comparison to cultured virus using the heteroduplex mobility assay. (submitted)

32. Pau C-P, Kai M, Holloman-Candal DL, Luo C-C, Kalish M, Schochetman G, Byers B, George R, and the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Antigenic variation and serotyping of HIV type 1 from four World Health Organization-sponsored HIV vaccine sites. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1369-1377.

33. Cheingson-Popov R, Lister S, Callow D, Kaleebu P, Beddows S, Weber J, and the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Serotyping HIV type 1 by antibody binding to the V3 loop: Relationship to viral genotype. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1379-1386.

34. Wasi C, Herring B, Raktham S, Vanichseni S, Mastro T, Young N, Rn-Waigmann H, von Briesen H, Kalish M, Luo C-C, Baldwin A, Mullins JI, Delwart E, Esparza J, Heyward WL, Osmanov S: Determination of HIV-1 subtypes in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand, using peptide-binding enzyme immunoassay and heteroduplex mobility assay: Evidence of increasing infection with HIV-1 subtype E. AIDS 1995; 9(in press).

35. Moore JP, McCutchan F, Poon S-W, Mascola J, Liu J, Cao Y, Ho DD: Exploration of antigenic variation in gp120 from clades A through F of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by using monoclonal antibodies. J Virol 1994; 68:8350-8364.

36. Zolla-Pazner S, O'Leary J, Burda S, Gorny MK, Kim M, Mascola J, McCutchan F: Serotyping of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from diverse geographic locations by flow cytometry. J Virol 1995; 69:3807-3815.

37. Muster T, Steindl F, Purtscher M, Trkola A, Klima A, Himmler G, Ruker F, Katinger H: A conserved neutralizing epitope on gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 1993; 67:6642-6647.

38. Weber J, Fenyo E-M, Naa P, and the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Neutralisation serotypes of HIV-1 field isolates are not predicted by genetic subtype. (submitted).

39. Moore J, Cao Y, Leu J, Qin L, Korber BTM, Ho DD: Interclade neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: The genetic clades do not correspond to neutralization serotypes but partially correspond to gp120 antigenic serotypes. (submitted).

40. Nkengasong JN, Peeters M, Ndumbe P, Janssens W, Willems B, Fransen K, Ngolle M, Piot P, van der Groen G: Cross-neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1ANT70 and HIV-1IIIB in sera of African and Belgian HIV-1 infected individuals. AIDS 1994; 8:1089-1096.

41. Kim FM, Kolson DL, Balliet JW, Srinivasan A, Collman R: V3-independent determinants of macrophage tropism in a primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate. J Virol 1995; 69:1755-1761.

42. McKnight A, Weiss RA, Shotton C, Takeuchi Y, Hoshino H, Clapham PR: Change in tropism upon escape by human immunodeficiency virus. J Virol 1995; 69:3167-3170.

43. De Jong JJ, De Ronde A, Keulen W, Termette M, Goudsmit J: Minimal requirements for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 domain to support the syncytium-inducing phenotype: Analysis by single amino acid substitution. J Virol 1992; 66:6777-6780.

44. Fouchier RAM, Groenink M, Kootstra NA, Tersmette M, Huisman HG, Miedema F, Schuitemaker H: Phenotype-associated sequence variation in the third variable region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 molecule. J Virol 1992; 66:3183-3187.

45. Cornelissen M, Mulder-Kampinga G, Veenstra J, Zorgdrager F, Kuiken C, Hartman S, Dekker J, van der Hoek L, Sol C, Coutinho R, Goudsmit J: Syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype suppression at seroconversion after intramuscular inoculation of a non-syncytium-inducing/SI phenotypically mixed human immunodeficiency virus population. J Virol 1995; 69:1810-1818.

46. Rn-Waigmann H, von Briesen H, Holmes H, Bjal A, Korber BTM, Esser R, Ranjbar S, Tomlinson P, Galvao-Castro B, Karita E, Sempala SDK, Wasi C, Osmanov S, Feny, and the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Standard conditions of virus isolation reveal biological variability of HIV type 1 in different regions of the world. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994, 10:1401-1408.

47. De Wolf F, Hogervorst E, Goudsmit J, Feny, Rn-Waigmann H, Holmes H, Galvao-Castro B, Karita E, Sempala SDK, Baan E, Zorgdrager F, Lukashov VV, Osmanov S, Kuiken C, Cornelissen M, and the WHO Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Syncytium-inducing and non-syncytium-inducing capacity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes other than B: Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1387-1400.

48. Groenik M, Fouchier RAM, Broersen S, Baker CH, Koot M, van't Wout AB, Huisman HG, Miedema F, Tersmette M, Schuitemaker H: Relation of phenotype evolution of HIV-1 to envelope V2 configuration. Science 1993; 260:1513-1516.

49. Wang N, Zhu T, Ho DD: Sequence diversity of V1 and V2 domains of gp120 from human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Lack of correlation with viral phenotype. J Virol 1995; 69:2708-2715.

50. Koot M, Keet IPM, Vos AH, De Goede REY, Roos MTL, Coutinho RA, Miedema F, Schellekens PTA, Tersmette M: Prognostic value of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 biological phenotype for the rate of CD4+ cell depletion and progression to AIDS. Ann Intern Med 1993; 118:681-688.

51. Osmanov S, Heyward WL, Esparza J: World Health Organization Network for HIV Isolation and Characterization: Summary of a pilot study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1994; 10:1325-1326.

Corresponding author:

Saladin Osmanov, MD, PhD
Virologist/Vaccine Specialist,
Department of Policy, Strategy & Research,
UNAIDS,
1211 Geneva 27 (Switzerland)