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close this bookBlood Safety and HIV: UNAIDS Technical Update (UNAIDS, 1997, 8 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAt a Glance
View the documentBackground
View the documentThe Challenges
View the documentThe Responses
View the documentKey Materials

Key Materials

Aide-Memoire for National Blood/AIDS/STD Programmes. Aide-Memoire, WHO, Blood Safety Unit & Global Programme on AIDS. Version 1.6, November 1995. Useful checklist of key elements required to ensure blood safety.

Safe blood and blood products. Distance Learning Materials 1993. Five modules (647 pages) + 4 cards. WHO/GPA/CNP/93.2A-E. The five modules cover: guidelines and principles for safe blood transfusion practice; safe blood donation; screening for HIV and other infectious agents; blood group serology; trainer s guide. Each module is divided into sections. Each section contains specific learning objectives, summary of information provided, and progress check allowing students to assess if objectives for section have been achieved.

Global Blood Safety Initiative. Consensus statement on how to achieve a safe and adequate blood supply by recruitment and retention of voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors. Geneva, 8-11 April 1991. Geneva: WHO, 1993. WHO/LBS/93.2. Provides recommendations to help countries establish and maintain safe and adequate blood supplies. Guidelines are provided on: establishment of blood donor programmes and definition of responsibilities; influencing community beliefs and attitudes about blood donation; selection and retention of blood donors; staff selection and training; evaluation of blood donor programmes, including suggested indicators for monitoring.

Guidelines for Blood Donor Counselling on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). WHO/GPA/TCO/HCS/94.2. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1994. Explores aims and stages of blood donor information and counselling; process of counselling; and resource requirements and implications of counselling. Complementary activities and structures for enabling blood donor counselling - such as coordination with other parts of the health care system, and volunteer recruitment - are also reviewed.

Consensus statement on screening of blood donations for infectious agents transmissible through blood transfusion, Geneva, 30 January to 1 February 1990. WHO/LBS/91.1. Guidelines for formulating and implementing appropriate screening policies to reduce risk of transmission of infectious agents by blood and blood products.

Schreiber GB, Busch M et al. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. New England Journal of Medicine, 1996; 334, (26):1685-1690: Estimates risks for transmitting HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV from screened blood units donated during window period.

Bush M, Alter H. Will human immunodeficiency virus p24 antigen screening increase the safety of the blood supply, and if so at what cost? Transfusion, 1995; 35:536-539. Review of studies investigating costs and benefits of p24 antigen screening. Issues discussed include high cost per transmission prevented and workload considerations.

Guidelines for Quality Assurance Programmes for Blood Transfusion Services. Geneva: WHO, 1993; 50 pp. ISBN 92 4 154448 1, SwFr 12. - (developing countries SwFr 8,40) Explores various aspects of quality assurance in the context of BTSs. Topics covered include: importance of documentation; preparation and implementation of standard operating procedures; donor selection and retention; laboratory aspects, including storage and transport of blood and blood components; quality and medical audits; and role of management in quality assurance. Chapter on blood collection includes component collection by apheresis, and special considerations in relation to autologous blood collections.

Guidelines for organizing national external quality assessment schemes for HIV serological testing. Geneva: WHO, 1996. WHO/UNAIDS/96.5.

Global Blood Safety Initiative. Guidelines for the appropriate use of blood. Geneva: WHO, 1989. WHO/LAB/89.10. Discusses appropriateness of using blood products in following cases: haemorrhage, burns, surgery, anaemia, hereditary haemolytic anaemia, neonatal disorders, pregnancy, and disorders of haemostasis. Guidelines for quality assurance and strategies for implementation of national guidelines also provided.

© Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 1997. All rights reserved. This publication may be freely reviewed, quoted, reproduced or translated, in part or in full, provided the source is acknowledged. It may not be sold or used in conjunction with commercial purposes without prior written approval from UNAIDS (contact: UNAIDS Information Centre, Geneva - see page 2). The views expressed in documents by named authors are solely the responsibility of those authors. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this work does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNAIDS concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products do not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by UNAIDS in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.