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close this bookCosting Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies (UNAIDS, 143 p.)
View the documentForeword
View the documentPreface and acknowledgements
Open this folder and view contentsINTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1: HIV/AIDS PREVENTION STRATEGIES
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2: CONCEPTS OF COST ANALYSIS
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3: PLANNING THE COSTING EXERCISE
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4: COLLECTION OF COST DATA
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 5: ANALYSIS OF COST DATA
View the documentChapter 6: Data Collection Sheets
View the documentREFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

Cost-Effectiveness Guidance and Methods

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2. Drummond MF, O’Brien B, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. (1997). Methods for the Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes. Oxford: Oxford Medical Publications.

3. Gold M, Siegel J, Russell L, Weinstein W. (1996). Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4. Hanson K. and Gilson L. (1993) Cost, Resource Use and Financing Methodology for Basic Health Services. Bamako Initiative Technical Report Series Number 16. UNICEF, New York.

5. Janowitz B. and Bratt JH. (1994) Methods for Costing Family Planning Services. United Nations Population Fund and Family Health International.

6. Over M. (1991) Economics for health sector analysis: concepts and cases. Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, The World Bank, Washington DC.

7. Phillips M., Mills A. and Dye C. (1993) Guidelines for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Vector Control. PEEM Secretariat, World Health Organization. Geneva. WHO/CWS/93.4.

8. Rowley J. and Anderson RM. (1994) Modelling the impact and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts. AIDS 8: 539-548.

9. World Health Organization. (1989) EPICOST Software for Costing an Immunisation Programme. World Health Organization, Geneva.

10. World Health Organization. (1988) Estimating Costs for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Guidelines for Managers of Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO/CDD/SER/88.3

11. Reynolds J and Gaspari KC. (1988) Operations Research Methods: Cost Effectiveness Analysis. PRICOR Monograph Series. Bethesda, Maryland.

12. Kumaranayake L (2000). “The real and the nominal: Making inflationary Adjustments to cost and other economic data.” Health Policy and Planning. 15(2):230-234.

HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies

GENERAL

13. Bertozzi SM. (1991) Combating HIV in Africa: a role for economic research. AIDS 5 (Supp 1) S45-54.

14. Foster S. and Lucas S. (1991) Socio-economic Aspects of HIV and AIDS in Developing Countries. PHP Departmental Publication No. 3, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

15. UNAIDS. (1998) Technical Brief on Cost Effectiveness of HIV Prevention Strategies. Geneva: UNAIDS.

16. Kaplan EH. and Brandeau ML. (1994) AIDS policy modelling by example. AIDS 8 (Supp 1): S333-340.

17. Kahn JG. (1996) The Cost-Effectiveness of HIV prevention targeting: how much bang for the buck? American Journal of Public Health 86(12): 1709-12.

18. Mertens TE., Belsey E., Stoneburner R. et al. (1995) Global estimates of HIV infections and AIDS: further heterogeneity in spread and impact. AIDS 9 (Supp 1): S251-272.

19. Over M. and Piot P. (1993) HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases. In: Jamison D and Mosley W et al. (eds) Disease control priorities in developing countries. Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford University Press for World Bank, Washington DC, 455-525.

20. Population Reports. (1989) AIDS education - a beginning. Volume XVII, Number 3.

21. Slund N., Broomberg J., Lavis J. and Mills A. (1993) The costs of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in developing countries. WHO Bulletin 71(5): 595-604

22. Stoller EJ. and Rutherford GW. (1989) Evaluation of AIDS prevention and control programmes. AIDS 3 (Supp 1): S289-296.

23. Watts C, Kumaranayake L, Vickerman P. (1999) HIVTools: A toolkit to estimate the impact and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies X1 International Conference on AIDs and STDs in Africa. Lusaka. [Abstract 13PT21-8].

24. Watts C and Goodman H. (1995) Resource Allocation for HIV Prevention: Report on a Pilot Study in Zambia. Report to WHO Global Programme on AIDS. Health Policy Unit, LSHTM.

25. Weinstein MC., Graham JD., Siegel JE. et al. (1989) Cost-effectiveness analysis of AIDS prevention programs: concepts, complications and illustrations. In: Turner CF. (ed) AIDS, sexual behaviour and IVDU. National Research Council, National Academy Press DC.

26. Wilson D. (1993) HIV/AIDS and development in Africa: prevention and coping strategies. African Development Bank 1993 Annual Development Symposium.

27. World Bank. (1997) Confronting Aids: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. New York: Oxford University Press.

28. World Health Organization. (1993) Effective approaches to AIDS prevention: report of a meeting. World Health Organization Report. WHO/GPA/IDS/93.1.

29. Zwi AB and Cabral AJR. (1991) Identifying “high risk situations” for preventing AIDS. BMJ 303: 1527-1529.

30. Holtgrave DR, Qualls NL, and Graham JD. (1996) Economic evaluation of HIV prevention programs. Annu Rev Public Health 1996; 17: 467-88.

31. Lamptey PR, Munkolenkole CK and Weir SS. (1997). Prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned. AIDS: 11(suppl): S63-S78.

32. Boerma T and Bennett J. (1997). Costs of district AIDS programmes. in HIV Prevention and Aids care in Africa. eds Ng’weshemi J, Boerma T, Bennett J, and Schapink D. Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute.

SCREENING BLOOD FOR HIV INFECTION

33. Beal R., Brunger E., Delaporte L, Deville L., Emmanuel J. et al. (1992) Safe Blood in developing countries - A report of the EEC's expert meeting. Brussels: EEC AIDS Task Force.

34. Foster S. and Buv. (1995) Benefits of HIV screening of blood transfusions in Zambia. Lancet 346: 225-227.

35. Kingman S. (1992) The cost of clean blood. New Scientist 20-21, 5 September.

36. Laleman G., Magazani K., Perriens J. et al. (1992) Prevention of Blood Borne HIV Transmission Using a Decentralised Approach in Shaba, Zaire. AIDS 6(11): 1353-1358.

37. Martin A. (1998) Safe blood and blood products: Costing of blood transfusion services. World Health Organization, Geneva. WHO/BLS/98.8.

38. Over M. (1991). Costs and effects of blood screening and social marketing of condoms as strategies for AIDS prevention in Tanzania. Background paper for Tanzania AIDS sector assessment study.

39. Watson-Williams E., Fournel J., Sondag D and Fransen L. (1992) Annex 8: 'EEC's safe blood programme policies and strategies in view of controlling AIDS in developing countries' Safe Blood in developing countries - A report of the EEC's expert meeting. EEC AIDS Task Force.

40. Watts C., Goodman H. and Muyinda G. (1995) Estimation of the number of HIV infections averted by blood screening. Lancet 346: 783-84.

41. World Health Organization. (1991) Global Blood Safety Initiative -Report on the GBSI Informal Consultation on 'Costing of Blood Transfusion Services. 28-31 October 1991. World Health Organization, Geneva.

42. Watson Williams EJ, Kataaha PK. (1990) Revival of the Ugandan Blood Transfusion System 1989: an example of international cooperation. Transfus Sci 11(2): 179-84.

43. McFarland W, Kahn JG, Katzenstein DA, Mvere D, Shamu R. (1995) Deferral of blood donors with risk factors for HIV infection saves lives and money in Zimbabwe. Journal Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes And Human Retrovirology; 9(2): 183-92.

44. Spielberg FA, Kabeya CM, Quinn TC, et al. (1990). Performance and cost-effectiveness of a dual rapid assay system for screening and confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seropositivity. J-Clin-Microbiol 1990; 28(2): 303-6.

45. Van de Perrre P, Diakhate L, Watson-Williams. (1997). Prevention of blood-borne transmission of HIV. AIDS: 11(suppl): S33-S42.

USE OF THE MASS MEDIA

46. McCombie S., Hornik R. and Anarfi J. (1993) Evaluation of a media campaign to prevent AIDS among young people in Ghana. Working paper 1015. Centre for International Health and Development Communication, University of Pennsylvania, USA (unpublished).

47. Yoder P., Hornik R. and Chirwa B. (1993) Impact of a radio drama about AIDS in Zambia: a programme called Nshilakamona. Working paper 1013. Final evaluation report. Centre for International Health and Development Communication, University of Pennsylvania, USA (unpublished).

HIV/AIDS EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

48. Baldo M. (1992) Lessons learned from pilot projects on school-based AIDS education. AIDS Health Promotion Exchange 2: 14-15.

49. Kirby D., Short L., Collins J. et al. (1994) School based programs to reduce sexual risk behaviours: a review of effectiveness. Public Health Reports 109(3): 339-360.

50. Kumaranayake L, Watts C, Vickerman P, Del Amo J, Kwenthieu G, Nama, Cheta C. (1998) Cost-effectiveness of a school education program for HIV Prevention: results from Cameroon. X1 International Conference on AIDs and STDs in Africa. Lusaka. [Abstract 13DT2-2.]

51. Phillips M., Feachem R. and Mills A. (1987) Options for diarrhoea control: the cost and cost-effectiveness of selected interventions for the prevention of diarrhoea. EPC Publication No 13 pp. 96-99, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

52. Oakley. (1994) Review of effectiveness: HIB prevention and sexual health education interventions. Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

53. Van Dam. 1992. AIDS: is health education the answer? Health Policy and Planning 4(2): 141-147.

54. Youri P. (ed) (1994) Female adolescent health and sexuality in Kenyan secondary schools: A survey report. AMREF, Kenya.

SOCIAL MARKETING OF CONDOMS

55. Cisek C. and Maher S. (1992) Maximising self-sufficiency in CSM Project Design: Fourth Generation Social Marketing. SOMARC Occasional Paper No 17.

56. Goodman H., Watts C., Olson D., Msiska R., Muleya D., Mills A. and Mertens T. (1995) What can we learn about the costs and outputs of condom social marketing? Paper presented at the IXth International Conference on AIDS/STD in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, 10-14 December 1995.

57. Harvey P. (1994) The impact of condom prices on sales in social marketing programs. Studies in Family Planning 25(1):52-58.

58. Kyungu Momat E. Undated. Condom social marketing, mass media and condom use in Zaire. Population Services International, Conakry, Guinea (unpublished).

59. Population Services International. (1993) Increasing condom use for AIDS prevention in Africa. Prepared for the Global Coalition for Africa by PSI, Washington, DC (unpublished).

60. Stallworthy G, Meekers D. (1998) Analysis of Unit Costs in 23 Condom Social Marketing Programs, 1990-1996. XII International AIDS Conference, Geneva. [Abstract 467/44240]

61. Stover J. and Heaton L. (1997) The Costs of Contraceptive Social Marketing Programs Implemented Through the SOMARC Project. SOMARC/Futures Group.

TREATMENT OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

62. Adler M, Foster S, Grosskurth H, Richens J, and Slavin H. (1998) Sexual Health and Care: Sexually Transmitted Infections. Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment. Health and Population Occasional Paper: Department for International Development.

63. Costello Daly C., Franco L., Chilongozi. and Dallabetta G. (1998) A cost comparison of approaches to sexually transmitted disease treatment in Malawi. Health Policy and Planning 13(1): 87-93.

64. Forsythe S., Minja-Trupin C. and Outwater A. (1992) Estimating the costs of training, quality control, research and operation of STD workplace clinics in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDSTECH/Family Health International/AMREF (unpublished).

65. Gilson L., Mkanje R., Grosskurth H., Mosha F., Picard J., Gavyole A., Todd J., Mayaud P., Swai R., Fransen L., Mabey D., Mills A. and Hayes R. (1997) Cost-Effectiveness of improved treatment services for sexually transmitted diseases in preventing HIV-1 infection in Mwanza Region, Tanzania. Lancet 350: 1805-1809.

66. Grosskurth H. et al. (1995) Impact of improved treatment of sexually transmitted diseases on HIV infection in rural Tanzania: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 346: 530-536.

67. Moses S., Plummer F., Ngugi E. et al. (1991) Controlling HIV in Africa: effectiveness and cost of an intervention in a high frequency STD transmitter core group. AIDS 5: 407-411.

68. Thompson A., Soga G. and Githens W. (1992) Estimating the costs of an AIDS education, condom distribution and STD/HIV testing intervention in Niamey, Niger. AIDSTECH/Family Health International (unpublished).

69. Forsythe S, Mangkalopakorn C, Chitwarakorn A, Masvichian N.(1998) Cost of providing sexually transmitted disease services in Bangkok. AIDS 12 Suppl 2: S73-80.

70. La Ruche G, Lorougnon F, Digbeu N. (1995). Therapeutic algorithms for the management of sexually transmitted diseases at the peripheral level in Cote d'Ivoire: assessment of efficacy and cost. Bull World Health Organ; 73(3): 305-13.

71. Van der Veen FH, Ndoye I, Guindo S, Deschampheleire I, Fransen L. (1994). “Management of STDs and cost of treatment in primary heatlh care centres in Pikine, Senegal.” International Journal of STDs and AIDS. 5(4): 262-7.

COMMERCIAL SEX WORKER PEER EDUCATION

72. Forsythe S., Mahabir B., Nurse L. et al. (1992) Estimating the costs of Trinidad's AIDS education and condom distribution program. AIDSTECH/Family Health International (unpublished).

73. Forsythe S., Simon L., Israel A. et al. (1992) Antigua high risk intervention: estimating the costs of Antigua's health education and condom distribution program. AIDSTECH/Family Health International (unpublished).

74. Kumaranayake L. (1996) Cost Analysis: Commercial Sex Worker Peer Education Strategy - Report of the Field Study in Cameroon. Health Policy Unit, LSHTM.

75. Kumaranayake L., Mangtani P., Boupda-Kuate A., Foumena Abada JC., Cheta C., Njoumemi Z. and Watts C. (1998) Cost-effectiveness of a HIV/AIDS peer education programme among Commercial Sex Workers: Results from Cameroon. 12th International AIDS Conference, Geneva. [Abstract 578/33592]

76. Moses S., Plummer F., Ngugi E. et al. (1991) Controlling HIV in Africa: effectiveness and cost of an intervention in a high frequency STD transmitter core group. AIDS 5: 407-411.

77. Ngugi E., Plummer F., Simonsen J. et al. (1988) Prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Africa: effectiveness of condom promotion and health education among prostitutes. Lancet 2: 887-890.

78. Thompson A., Soga G. and Githens W. (1992) Estimating the costs of an AIDS education, condom distribution and STD/HIV testing intervention in Niamey, Niger. AIDSTECH/Family Health International (unpublished).

79. Wong R. (1992) Cost recovery and recurrent costs of the high risk intervention project in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. AIDSTECH (unpublished).

80. Wong R. (1992) Cost effectiveness and cost recovery of the high risk intervention project in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. AIDSTECH (unpublished).

81. Wilson D., Sibanda B., Mboyi L., Msimonga S. and Dube G. (1990) A pilot study for an HIV prevention programme among commercial sex workers in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Social Science and Medicine 31(5): 609-18.

VOLUNTARY COUNSELLING AND TESTING

82. Allen S. Serufilira A, Bogaerts J et al. (1992) Confidential HIV testing and condom promotion in Africa: impact on HIV and gonorrhoea rates. JAMA 268: 3338-43

83. Chrystie IL. et al. (1995) Is HIV testing in ante-natal clinics worthwhile? Can we afford it? AIDS Care 7(2): 135-142.

84. De Zoysa I, Phillips KA, Kamenga, MC. et al. (1995) Role of HIV counselling and testing in changing risk behaviour in developing countries. AIDS 9 (Supp A): S95-101.

85. Higgins D.L, Galavotti G, O’Reilly KR, et al. (1991) Evidence for effects of HIV antibody counselling and testing on risk behaviours. JAMA 266: 2419-29.

86. Kamenga M, Ryder RW, Jingu M. et al. (1991) Evidence of marked behaviour change associated with low HIV sero-conversion in 149 married couples with discordant HIV sero-status: experience at an HIV counselling centre in Zaire. AIDS 5: 61-7.

87. Moore M, Tukwasiibwe E, Marum E, et al. (1993) Impact of HIV counselling and testing in Uganda. IXth International Conference on AIDS/IV STD World Conference, Berlin, June 1993 [abstract WSC 16-4].

88. Tamashiro H. et al. (1993) Reducing the cost of HIV antibody testing. Lancet 342: 87-90.

89. Temmerman M., Ndinya-Achola J., Ambani J. et al. (1995) The right not to know HIV test results. Lancet 345: 969-70.

90. World Health Organization. (1993) Statement from the consultation on testing and counselling for HIV infection. WHO/GPA/INF/93.2.

91. Aisu T, Raviglione MC, van Praag E, et al. (1995). Preventive chemotherapy for HIV-associated tuberculosis in Uganda: an operational assessment at a voluntary counselling and testing centre. AIDS 9:267-273.

92. Cartoux M, Meda N, Van de Perre P, Newell ML, de Vincenzi I, Dabis F. (1998) Acceptability of voluntary HIV testing by pregnant women in developing countries: an international survey - Ghent International Working Group on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. AIDS 12:489-93

93. Simpson WM, Johnstone FD, Goldberg DF, Gormley SM, Hart GJ. (1999) Antenatal HIV testing: assessment of a routine voluntary approach. British Medical Journal, 318:1660-1661.

94. Wilkinson D, Wilkinson N, Lombard C, Martin D, Smith A, Floyd K, and Ballard R. (1997). On-Site HIV Testing in Resource-Poor Settings: Is One Rapid Test Enough? AIDS: 11:377-381.

95. The importance of simple and rapid tests in HIV diagnostics: WHO recommendations. Weekly Epidemiological Record 73 (42): 321-328.

96. McKenna S et al. (1997). Rapid HIV testing and counselling for voluntary testing centers in Africa. AIDS 11 (Suppl 1):S103-S110.

97. Killewo JZJ et al. (1998). Acceptability of voluntary HIV testing with counselling in a rural village in Kagera, Tanzania. AIDS Care 10(4):431-439.

98. Sweat M, Sangiwa G, Balmer D. (1998). HIV Counseling and Testing in Tanzania and Kenya is Cost-Effective: Results from the Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing Study. 12th International Conference on AIDS, Geneva: [Abstract 580/33277].

99. Alwano-Edyegu M and Marum E. (1999). Knowledge is Power: Voluntary Counseling and Testing in Uganda. Geneva. UNAIDS.

100. Campbell CH, marum E, Alwano-Edyegu et al. (1997). The role of HIV counselling and testing in the developing world AIDS Education and Prevention 9(suppl B):92-104.

101. Downing RG, Otten RA, Marum E et al (1998). Optimising the delivery of HIV counselling and testing services: The Uganda experience using rapid HIV antibody test algorithms. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology. 18:384-388.

102. Sangiwa G, Balmer D, Furlonge C et al (1998). Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) reduces risk behaviour in developing countries: results from the multisite voluntary counselling and testing efficacy study.” 12th International Conference on HIV/AIDS. [Abstract 33269].

103. Bentley ME et al. (1998). HIV testing and counseling among men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India: changes in condom use and sexual behaviour over time. AIDS 12:1869-1877.

104. Kamb ML et al (1998). Efficacy of risk-reduction counseling to prevent human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted diseases. JAMA 280:1161-1167.

PREVENTION MEASURES AMONG INJECTING DRUG USERS

105. Ball AL, Rana S, and Dehne KL. (1998). HIV Prevention among Injecting Drug Users: Responses in Developing and Transitional Countries. Public Health Reports 113(Suppl 1): S170-S181.

106. McCoy CB, Metsch LR, Chitwood DD, Shapshak P and Comerford ST. (1998). Parenteral transmission of HIV among injection drug users: assessing the frequency of multiperson use of needle, syringes, cookers, cotton and water. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 18(Suppl 1): S25-S29.

107. Koester S. (1998). Following the Blood: Syringe Reuse Leads to Blood-Borne Virus Transmission Among Injection Drug Users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 18(Suppl 1): S139.

108. Needle RH, Coyle SL, Norman J, Lambert E and Cesari H. (1998). HIV prevention with drug-using populations - current status and future prospects: introduction and overview. Public Health Reports 113 (Suppl 1): 4-30.

109. Jones TS and Vlahov D. (1998). Use of Sterile Syringes and Aseptic Drug Preparation are Important Components of HIV Prevention Among Injection Drug Users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 18(Suppl 1): S1-S5.

110. Holtgrave DR, Pinkerton DS, Jones TS, Lurie P, and Vlahov. (1998). Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Access to Sterile Syringes and Needles as an HIV Prevention Intervention in the United States. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 18(Suppl 1): S133-S138.

111. Des Jarlais DC and Friedman SR. (1998). Fifteen years of research on preventing HIV infection among injecting drug users: What we have learned, what we have not learned, what we have done, what have we not done. Public Health Reports 113(Suppl 1): S182-S204.

112. Hurley SF, Jolley DJ and Kaldor JM. (1997). Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention of HIV infection. Lancet 349:1797-1800.

113. Strathdee SA, van Ameijden EJC, Mesquita F, Wodak A, Rana S and Vlahov D. (1998). Can HIV epidemics among injections drug users be prevented? AIDS 12 (Suppl A): S71-S79.

114. Vlahov D and Junge B. (1998) The Role of Needle Exchange Programs in HIV Prevention. Public Health Reports 113(Suppl 1): S75-S80.

115. Kumar MS, Mudaliar S and Daniels D. (1998). Community-based outreach HIV intervention for street-recruited drug users in Madras, India. Public Health Reports 113 (Suppl 1): 58-66.

116. Kumaranayake L, Walker D. (1999). Costing guidelines for HIV/AIDS prevention strategies among injecting drug user populations. Health Economics and Financing Programme, LSHTM.

117. Lurie P, Gorsky R, Jones S and Shomphe L. (1998). An economic analysis of needle exchange and pharmacy-based programs to increase sterile syringe availability for injection drug users. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 18(Suppl 1): S126-S132

118. Panda S, Chatterjee A, Bhattacharjee S, Ray B, Saha MK and Bhattacharya SK. (1998). HIV, hepatitis B and sexual practices in the street-recruited injecting drug users of Calcutta: risk perception versus observed risks. International Journal of STD and AIDS 9: 214-218.

119. Walker D, Kumaranayake L, Zviagin V, Samoshkin S, Romantsov V. (2000) Cost analysis of a harm reduction programme in Svetlogorsk, Belarus. Health Policy Unit, LSHTM.

120. Walker D, Vickerman P, Kumaranayake L, Zviagin V, Samoshkin S, Romantsov V, Watts, C. (2000) Responding to HIV/AIDS in Belarus: The importance of early intervention. Eurohealth 6(1):1-3.

121. Kumaranayake L, Watts C, Walker D, Vickerman P, Zviagin V, Samoshkin S, Romantsov V. (2000). Cost-effectiveness of HIV preventive measures among injecting drug users in Svetlogorsk, Belarus.” Health Policy Unit, LSHTM.

PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD/VERTICAL TRANSMISSION

122. Working Group on Mother-To-Infant Transmission of HIV (1995). “Rates of mother-to-infant-transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, America, and Europe: results from 13 perinatal studies. J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr Retrovirol, 8:506-10.

123. Connor E, Sperling R, Gelber R, Kiselev P, Scott G, O’Sullivan M. (1994). “Reduction of maternal-infant traNsmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment.” N Eng J Med 3331:1173-80

124. CDC (1998). “Administration of Zidovudine during late pregnancy and delivery to prevent perinatal HIV transmission - Thailand 1996-1998. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:151-54.

125. Shaffer N, Chuachoowong R, Mock PA, Bhadrakom C, Siriwasin W, Young NL, Chotpitayasunondh T, Chearskul S, Roongpisuthipong A, Chinayon P, Karon J, Mastro TD, Simonds RJ. (1999). Short-course zidovudine for perinatal HIV-1 transmission in Bangkok, Thailand: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet.

126. Dabis F, Msellati P, Meda N, Welffens-Ekra C, You B, Manigart, Leroy V, Simonon A, Cartoux M, Combe P, Ouangre A, Ramon R, Ky-Zerbo O, Montcho C, Salamon R, Rouzioux C, Van de Perre P, Mandelbrot L. (1999). 6-month efficacy, tolerance, acceptability of a short regimen of oral zidovudine to reduce vertical transmission of HIV in breastfed children in Cote d’Ivoire and Burkina-Faso: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre trial. Lancet 353:786-792.

127. Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, Bagenda D, Allen M, Nakabiito C, Sherman J, Bakaki P, Ducar C, Deseyve M, Emel L, Mirochnick M, Foweler MG, Mofenson L, Miotti P, Dransfield K, Bray D, Mmiro F, Jackson JB. (1999). Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda:HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 354:795-802.

128. Dunn D, Newell M-L, Ades A, Peckham C. (1992) Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission through breast-feeding. Lancet 340:585-8

129. Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia HM. (1999). Influence of infant-feeding patterns on early mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Durban, South Africa: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 354:471-476.

130. Newell ML. (1999). Infant feeding and HIV-1 Transmission. Lancet 354:442-443.

131. Wiktor SZ, Ekpini E, Nduati RW. (1997). Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa. AIDS, 11(suppl B) S79-S87.

132. Kennedy KI, Fortnery KA, Bonhomme MG, Potts M, Lamptey P. and Carswell W. (1990) Do the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV via breastmilk? Tropical Doctor January 25-29.

133. Mansergh G., Haddix AC., Steketee RW., Nieburg PI, Hu DJ., Simonds RJ. and Rogers M. (1996) Cost-effectiveness of Short-Course Zidovudine to Prevent Perinatal HIV Type 1 Infection in a sub-Saharan African developing country setting. JAMA 276(2): 139-145.

134. Marseille E, Kahn JG. and Saba J. (1998) Cost effectiveness of antiviral drug therapy to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 12(8): 939-948.

135. Soderlund N, Zwi K, Kinghorn, Gray G. (1999). Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV: analysis of cost effectiveness options available in South Africa British Medical Journal, 318: 1650-1655.

136. Marseille E, Kahn JG, Mmiro F, Guay L, Musoke P, Fowler MG, Jackson JB. (1999). Cost effectiveness of single-dose nevirapine regimen for mothers and babies to decrease vertical HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa Lancet, 354:803-809.

137. Wilkinson D., Floyd K. and Gilks CF. (1998) Antiretroviral drugs as a public health intervention for pregnant HIV-infected women in rural South Africa: an issue of cost-effectiveness and capacity. AIDS 12.

138. Wiktor SZ, Ekpini E, Karon JM, Nkengasong J, Maurice C, Severin ST, Roeis TH, Kouassi MK, Lackritz EM, Coulibaly IM, Greenberg AE. (1999). Short-course oral zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire: a randomised trial Lancet 353:781-785.

MICROBICIDES AND FEMALE-CONTROLLED METHODS

139. Elias CJ., and Heise LL. (1994) Challenges for the development of female-controlled vaginal microbicides. AIDS 8: 1-9.

140. Elias CJ. and Heise LL. (1993) The development of microbicides: A new method of HIV prevention for women. Population Council Working Paper.

141. Elias CJ. and Coggins C. (1996) Female-Controlled methods to prevent sexual transmission of HIV. AIDS 10(suppl) 3: S43-S51

VACCINES

142. Cowley P. (1993) Preliminary cost-effectiveness analysis of an AIDS vaccine in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Health Policy 24: 145-153

143. Esparza J. et al. (1999) AIDS vaccine research in Asia: needs and opportunities. AIDS 13(11): 1-13