Cover Image
close this bookEpidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections: Estonia (UNAIDS, 2000, 12 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCountry Information
View the documentEstimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS
View the documentHIV sentinel surveillance
View the documentMaps of HIV sentinel sites
View the documentReported AIDS cases
View the documentCurable sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
View the documentHealth service indicators
View the documentKnowledge and behaviour
View the documentSources
View the documentAnnex: HIV Surveillance data by site

Estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS

In 1999 and during the first quarter of 2000, UNAIDS and WHO worked closely with national governments and research institutions to recalculate current estimates on people living with HIV/AIDS. These calculations are based on the previously published estimates for 1997 and recent trends in HIV/AIDS surveillance in various populations. A methodology developed in collaboration with an international group of experts was used to calculate the new estimates on prevalence and incidence of HIV and AIDS deaths, as well as the number of children infected through mother-to- child transmission of HIV. Different approaches were used to estimate HIV prevalence in countries with low-level, concentrated or generalized epidemics. The current estimates do not claim to be an exact count of infections. Rather, they use a methodology that has thus far proved accurate in producing estimates that give a good indication of the magnitude of the epidemic in individual countries. However, these estimates are constantly being revised as countries improve their surveillance systems and collect more information.

Adults in this report are defined as women and men aged 15 to 49. This age range covers people in their most sexually active years. While the risk of HIV infection obviously continues beyond the age of 50, the vast majority of those who engage in substantial risk behaviours are likely to be infected by this age. The 15 to 49 age range was used as the denominator in calculating adult HIV prevalence.

· Estimated number of adults and children living with HIV/AIDS, end of 1999

These estimates include all people with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS, alive at the end of 1999:

Adults and children


Adults (15-49)


Adult rate (%)


Women (15-49)


Children (0-15)


· Estimated number of deaths due to AIDS

Estimated number of adults and children who died of AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic

Cumulative deaths


Estimated number of adults and children who died of AIDS during 1999:

Deaths in 1999


· Estimated number of orphans

Estimated number of children who have lost their mother or both parents to AIDS (while they were under the age of 15) since the beginning of the epidemic:

Cumulative orphans

Estimated number of children who have lost their mother or both parents to AIDS and who were alive and under age 15 at the end of 1999:

Current living orphans

Assessment of epidemiological situation - Estonia

HIV testing and case reporting: HIV testing is mandatory in blood donors and prisoners. HIV surveillance is done through screening and through a national HIV case reporting system. By December 1999, 96 HIV cases were reported, most of them living in the capital area. By end 1999, no HIV case has been reported among IDU; numbers of cases among homo/bisexual men and persons infected through heterosexual contacts are comparable. Women represent a small proportion of infected patients (16% in 1997-1999). HIV prevalence: Prevalence data come mostly from ongoing testing programmes. UAT is not authorised in the country. STD’s: Incidence of syphilis cases increased dramatically from <10 cases per 100,000 in 1982-90 to 70 per 100,000 in 1995.