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close this bookCommunications Programming for HIV/AIDS: An annotated bibliography (UNAIDS, 1999, 111 p.)
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View the documentHIV/AIDS media campaigns
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HIV/AIDS media campaigns

ABBAS, B., HANIF, M.A., MUSTAFA, M. (1998).

Effects of AIDS awareness campaigns on knowledge of AIDS in a rural area of Bangladesh. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 33477. Geneva, June 28-July 3.

A campaign was designed to promote knowledge of consequences of AIDS, risk behaviours, transmission, prevention, and diagnosis. Conclusions indicate that AIDS awareness campaigns can be conducted in conservative rural societies in Bangladesh, although in this type of setting, raising effective knowledge may take more time.

AGGLETON, P. (1997).

Behavior change communication strategies. AIDS Education & Prevention. 9 (2):111-123.

Appropriate and effective communication is central to the success of interventions to reduce the risk of HIV infection. The author reviews what has been learned about the nature of communication in the behaviour change process, and examines the contexts in which communication occurs, as well as the contribution of communication theory, social marketing theory, and structural intervention theory to intervention development. Guidance is offered on the most appropriate ways in which to communicate with different groups and audiences, and future priorities for research and intervention are identified.

BAJOS, N., SPIRA, A., LERT, F., RUDELIC-FERNANDEZ, D., & DUCOT, B. (1996).

Evaluation of a new AIDS communication and prevention model. Analysis of reactions to the program "3000 scenarios against a virus". Revue Epidologie de Santublique. 44 (3): 237-47.

This paper presents the results of the evaluation of a French AIDS prevention campaign based on films. The formal characteristics of the campaign induced particular interest while the content of the films induced emotion and lead to a personalization.

BORTOLOTTI, F., STIVANELLO, A., NOVENTA, F., FORZA, G., PAVANELLO, N., & BERTOLINI, A. (1992).

Sustained AIDS education campaigns and behavioral changes in Italian drug abusers. European Journal of Epidemiology. 8:264-267.

The study was conducted in the area of Padua, Italy, to evaluate the effectiveness and limits of a sustained education campaign. Drug-related and sexual risk behaviours and motivations preventing behaviour changes were investigated by direct interview in 190 injecting drug abusers. Results suggest that sustained AIDS education campaigns are successful in maintaining and reinforcing the trend to risk-reduction previously observed among drug abusers in this area.

BRAY, F., & CHAPMAN, S. (1991).

Community knowledge, attitudes and media recall about AIDS, Sydney 1988 and 1989. Australian Journal of Public Health. 15:107-113.

A randomized telephone survey of Sydney residents aged 16 - 50 was conducted in 1988 and repeated in 1989 to assess changes in AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes and opinions about AIDS policies. The authors conclude that AIDS policy makers in public education should consider the wisdom of continuing to target messages to low-risk populations. However, while these messages have raised fundamental knowledge about AIDS, they may be unintentionally causing social divisiveness and widespread unnecessary anxiety.

BRYCE, J., POPE, R.S., & RUFF, J.A. (1990).

The impact of the Michigan mass media campaign on hotline calls, knowledge levels, and requests for HIV counseling and testing. VI Int. Conf. AIDS, 6, 294 (abstract no. F.D. 848), San Francisco. June 23-26.

CAMPBELL, M.J., WATERS, W.E. (1987).

Public knowledge about AIDS increasing. British Medical Journal. 294:892-893.

A study conducted in 1986 shows that even before television ads about AIDS were aired, intense media coverage of the disease seemed to have resulted in an increase in the level of public knowledge concerning AIDS. The authors argue that this process created a favorable environment for further health education.

CARE/THAILAND (1996).

"Motivation for safer sex for youth in rural communities", Report to European Community AIDS Unit. Bangkok.

This report describes specific project experiences and activities revolving around prevention of HIV/ AIDS, and centers on outreach and peer education programmes as a strategy for prevention programmes conducted in worksites and networks of risk groups.

CARON, S.L., DAVIS, C.M., WYNN, R.L., & ROBERTS, L.W. (1992).

"America Responds to AIDS", but did college students? Differences between March, 1987 and September, 1988. AIDS Education and Prevention. 4:18-28.

To assess thoughts, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviour related to AIDS, data were collected from two similar samples of college students. Results indicate increased awareness and knowledge and changed attitudes and behaviours in some cases, but the absolute magnitudes of the differences are small for most between-group comparisons. Also, many students lack detailed knowledge and fail to see the implications of their knowledge for change in their own behaviour. These findings imply educational efforts must go beyond merely providing knowledge to explicitly link facts to personal belief systems and decision making.

CHILD, R., PLANET, P., & META, N. (1998).

Four HIV/AIDS campaigns of public communication in Chile (1991-1997) and peoples awareness of risk. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 34227. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.730.

Evaluation of the project design of four campaigns shows that strategies aimed at changing attitude and behaviour must involve permanent qualitative and quantitative follow-up and new sources of information. This analysis is thought to be useful in future HIV/AIDS prevention programmes.

CHILEVA, A., & METODIEFF, M. (1994).

The mass media response to a national AIDS campaign. X Int. Conf. AIDS, 10, 356 (abstract no. PD0606), Tokyo. Aug. 7-12.

CHOI, K.H., & COATES, T.J. (1994).

Prevention of HIV infection. AIDS. 8:1371-1389.

A critical review of the scientific literature on AIDS prevention programs in an attempt to determine the extent to which behavioural intervention research has demonstrated the efficacy of methods for reducing risk behaviours.

COLEMAN, L.M., & FORD, N.J. (1996).

An extensive literature review of the evaluation of HIV prevention programmes. Health Education Research. 11 (3):327-338.

This paper presents a bibliographical review of a range of HIV intervention programmes, implemented throughout the world between 1987 and 1995. The paper assesses (1) to what extent intervention programmes have been tailored to meet the requirements and needs of specific target groups; (2) to what extent intervention programmes are supported by social and psychological theory of attitudinal and behavioural change; and (3) the range of methodologies employed in evaluating intervention programmes. The paper presents and discusses the principal factors thought to contribute towards the effectiveness of HIV intervention programmes.

DE GUZMAN, A., & FLERAS, J.B. (1998).

Developing a TV campaign to debunk traditional beliefs about male sexuality. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 34221. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.729.

The researchers present the results of a television campaign targeting Filipino men in which the audience is encouraged to change behaviours that put them at risk for HIV and STD infection. Analysis indicates that it is possible to show how traditional beliefs can be detrimental to a person's health and how the mass media can contribute to promote such behavioural change.

DEARING. J.W., AND ROGERS, E.M. (1992).

AIDS and the media agenda. In T. Edgar, M.A. Fitzpatrick, and V.S. Freimuth (Eds.), AIDS: A Communication Perspective (p.173-194). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

The authors utilize the concept of agenda-setting to identify the main factors that influenced the importance of AIDS as a newsworthy issue in San Francisco and in the United States as a whole.

DE VROOME, E., SANDFORT, T., DE VRIES, K., PAALMAN, M., & TIELMAN, R. (1991).

Evaluation of a safe sex campaign regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among young people in The Netherlands. Health Education Research. 6(3):317-325.

An evaluation of a mass media campaign in the Netherlands in 1989. Results suggest that a mass media campaign does not have to be restricted to mere attention-raising and increasing level of knowledge but may be of relevance for other psychosocial processes as well.

DUBOIS-ARBER, F., JEANNIN, A., & ZEUGIN, P. (1992).

Evaluation of AIDS prevention in Switzerland: Behavioral change in the general population. VIII Int. Conf. AIDS. 8, D410 (abstract no. PoD 5410). July 19-24.

EDGAR, T., FITZPATRICK, M.A., AND FREIMUTH, V.S. (EDS.). (1992).

AIDS: A Communication Perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

The book examines how theory informs understanding of communication processes as they relate to the AIDS crisis in the United States and other parts of the world. Theoretical and practical approaches are presented by various contributors.

FLORA, J.A., MAIBACH, E.W., & HOLTGRAVE, D. (1995).

Communication Campaigns for HIV Prevention: Using Mass Media in the Next Decade. In Assessing the Social and Behavioral Science Base for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention, Workshop Summary. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

FOX, M.P., & CORTES, E. (1992).

The current relevance of mass media advertising in Brazilian AIDS prevention campaigns. VIII Int. Conf. AIDS, 8, D523 (abstract no. PoD 5806). July 19-24.

FREIMUTH, V.S. (1992).

Theoretical Foundations of AIDS Media Campaigns. In T. Edgar, M.A. Fitzpatrick, & V.S. Freimuth (Eds.), AIDS: A Communication Perspective (p.91-110). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

This general overview of types of theories useful for AIDS campaigns includes disussion of applications of selected theories such as the health belief model, social learning/cognitive theory, social marketing and diffusion of innovations.

FREIMUTH, V.S., HAMMOND, S.L., & STEIN, J.A. (1988).

Health Advertising: Prevention for Profit. American Journal of Public Health. 78:557-561.

This paper describes a campaign of the National Cancer Institute and its impact on consumers, cereal industry sales, food industry advertising practices, health regulatory policy, and the organizational credibility of both NCI and Kellogg.

GARCIA, R., CESPEDES, J.E., KLASKALA, W., & BAUM, M. (JULY, 1996).

National response towards HIV/AIDS awareness and testing campaign. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract PubD1310], Vancouver. July 7-12.

The study was developed to determine the level of national awareness and perception related to prevention of HIV infection. Results show high sexual activity and promiscuity among teenagers/ young adults, and lack of effective sexual education. The majority of those surveyed are not protecting themselves adequately against contracting HIV and other STDs. Results of this survey indicate the need for an aggressive prevention and education programme that should be started prior to adolescence.

GENTRY, E.M., & JORGENSEN, C.M. (1991).

Monitoring the exposure of "America Responds to AIDS" PSA campaign. Public Health Reports. 106:651-655.

The "America Responds to AIDS" campaign is the focal point of an integrated mass communications system for AIDS education and information dissemination developed by the National AIDS Information and Education Program of the Centers for Disease Control. Television and radio public service announcements are an integral part of the campaign. One measure of their success is the extent to which they are aired on both national and local levels. Since 1987, the total dollar value for air time donated to the campaign has been more than $65 million. These results suggest that the campaign has been successful in reaching a large proportion of the public.

GERBERT, B., & MAGUIRE, B. (1989).

Public acceptance of the Surgeon General's brochure on AIDS. Public Health Reports. 104: 130-133.

The authors discuss public acceptance of the Surgeon General's brochure, "Understanding AIDS", which was investigated in a nationwide telephone survey of a representative sample of 2,000 adults generated by random-digit dialing. Most respondents reacted positively; 86 percent believed that it was a good use of government money, and only seven percent would have preferred not to receive it.

GLANZ, K., & RIMER, G.K. (1995).

Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. PHS, NIH.

This guide describes theories of health-related behavioural change as well as socio-environmental factors that affect health promotion;it also covers theoretical and practical approaches to health promotion.

HANENBERG, R.S., ROJANAPITHAYAKORN, W., KUNASOL, P., & SOKAL, D.C. (1994).

Impact of Thailand's HIV-control programme as indicated by the decline of sexually transmitted diseases. Lancet. 344 (8917):243-243.

A report on a campaign that the Thai government began in 1989, which included distribution of sufficient condoms to protect much of the commercial sex workers in the country, sanctions against commercial sex establishments where condoms were not used consistently, and a media campaign that advised men to use condoms with prostitutes. It is estimated that sex acts with prostitutes where there was a risk of HIV transmission declined from about 2.6% in June, 1989, to about 1.6% in June, 1993.

HAUSSER, D., LEHMANN, P., DUBOIS-ARBER, F., & GUTZWILLER, F. (1988).

Evaluation of nationwide campaigns against AIDS in Switzerland. IV Int. Conf. AIDS (abstract no. 9553), Stockholm. June 12-16.

HELGUERA, G., ACUNA, M.L., CHAVEZ-PEON, F., & SEPULVEDA, J. (1990).

Social mobilization in the prevention of AIDS. V Int. Conf. AIDS, 6, 294 (abstract no. F.D. 850), Montreal. June 4-9.

HIROSE, H., ISHIZUKA, T., TSUCHIDA, S., SAWAZAKI, Y. (JULY, 1996).

The exposure of AIDS communication from mass media on citizens of Tokyo metropolis. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract MoD1826], Vancouver. July 7-12.

The researchers evaluate the campaign effect of mass media on the citizen's attitudes and behaviour formation towards AIDS in the Tokyo metropolis in Japan. Participants answered that they had always or almost always exposed themselves to AIDS reports when the media had carried such information. Highest exposure was 50.7% (newspaper), followed by 29.5% (television). AIDS information seekers though the media had more intention to undergo the HIV serologic test than non-information seekers.

HOLTGRAVE, D.R., QUALLS, N.L., CURRAN, J.W. ET AL. (1995).

Effectiveness and efficiency of HIV prevention programs: An overview. Public Health Reports, in press.

The authors argue that because of the enormity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the urgency for preventing transmission, HIV prevention programmes are a high priority for careful and timely evaluations. Information on programme effectiveness and efficiency is needed for decision-making about future HIV prevention priorities.

IZAZOLA, J.A., VALDESPINO, J.L., & SEPULVEDA, J. (1988).

Indicators of behavior modification due to the campaign for the prevention of AIDS in Mexico. IV Int. Conf. AIDS, (abstract no. 9551), Stockholm. June 12-16.

JOHNSON, D., FLORA, J.A., & RIMAL, R.N. (1997).

HIV/AIDS Public Service Announcements Around the World: A Descriptive Analysis. Journal of Health Communication. 2:223-234.

This article provides a detailed analysis of message and production values used by government health agencies and television networks in 33 countries to create HIV/AIDS related public service announcements. In addition to message factors, the article also analyses factors such as level of social vulnerability, gross national product, human freedom and female status.

KASEKA, N., JONES, D., KALAMBAY, K., WALOMBUA, M., DOPPAGNE, A., REYWARD, W., MINLANGU, M., & MANZILA, T. (1992).

Contribution of a public mass-media and AIDS information campaign in AIDS knowledge, condom use and HIV seroincidence among employees of a large business in Kinshasa, Zaire. VIII Int. Conf. AIDS. 8, D478 (abstract no. PoD 5546).

KEISER, N.H. (1991).

Strategies of media marketing for "America Responds to AIDS" and applying lessons learned. Public Health Reports, 106, 623-627.

The Centers for Disease Control's public service announcement campaign on AIDS, entitled "America Responds to AIDS", has provided an opportunity to examine various media marketing techniques and their effectiveness in setting and sustaining a national media agenda for public health. The overall objective was to enlist the media as a partner in the effort to establish a clear national public health agenda on AIDS by reaching as many Americans as possible with disease prevention information in a credible and acceptable way.

KRAFT, P., & RISE, J. (1988).

Public awareness and acceptance of an HIV/AIDS information campaign in Norway. Special Issue: AIDS. Health Education Research. 3 (1):31-39.

People over fifteen years of age were surveyed to establish their acceptance of an HIV/AIDS education campaign. Major determinants for higher levels of acceptance were education, political preference and age; whereas age, education and interpersonal communication were prevalent in awareness levels.

KYUNGU, M., EIGER, R., KAOMBO, K., KAMBAMBA, S.A., & CONVISSER, J. (1990).

The impact of an AIDS television campaign on an urban experience. VI Int. Conf. AIDS, 6, 293 (abstract no. F.D. 846), San Francisco. June 2-23.

LATOUR, M.S., SNIPES, R.L., & BLISS, S.J. (1996).

Don't be afraid to use fear appeals: An experimental study. Journal of Advertising Research. March/April, 59-67.

In this paper, the authors describe a field study which examines the perceived ethicality of the use of a strong video fear appeal shown to a potentially sensitive group of consumers. According to the authors, results help to blunt "blanket" criticism of fear appeals and provide evidence for advertising executives who wish to argue for serious consideration of fear appeal use.

LATOUR, M.S., & ZAHRA, S.A. (1989).

Fear appeals as advertising strategy: Should they be used? The Journal of Consumer Marketing. 6(2):61-70.

The authors review various models of the fear communication process and find that research on the effectiveness of fear appeals indicates that fear arousal is a complex and individually unique emotion. Inconsistent results concerning the impact of fear appeals in consumer behaviour are noted, and issues arising from employing fear appeals in advertising are outlined.

LEFEBVRE, R.C., & FLORA, J.A.. (1988).

Social marketing and public health interventions. Health Education Quarterly. 15:299-315.

This article discusses essential aspects of the social marketing process: the use of a consumer orientation to develop and market intervention techniques, exchange theory as a model from which to conceptualize service delivery and programme participation, audience analysis and segmentation strategies, the use of formative research in programme design and pre-testing of intervention materials, channel analysis for devising distribution systems and promotional campaigns, employment of the "marketing mix" concept in intervention planning and implementation, among others. Attention to such variables could result in more cost-effective programmes that reach larger numbers of the target audience.

LEHMANN, P., HAUSSER, D., SOMAINI, B., & GUTZWILLER, F. (1987).

Campaign against AIDS in Switzerland: Evaluation of a nationwide educational programme. British Medical Journal. 295:1118-1120.

Evaluation of a multi-media information campaign with the main slogan "STOP-AIDS" began in February 1987. The evaluation of that strategy, based on 13 complementary studies, confirms its efficiency and feasibility. Condom sales increased by nearly 60% in 1987 compared with 1986.

LEVY, A., & STOKES, R. (1987).

Effects of a health promotion advertising campaign on sales of ready-to-eat cereals. Public Health Reports. 102:398-403.

The objective of this study was to determine how the sales of various segments of the high-fiber and low-high fiber, ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal market were influenced by a health message advertising campaign about the possible benefits of a high-fiber, low-fat diet for preventing some types of cancer. The campaign was undertaken by the Kellogg Company to promote its line of high-fiber cereal products, including Kellogg's All-Bran.

LUZI, G., RAGNO, L., & ATUTI, F. (JULY, 1996).

Innovative mass media's role to prevent HIV-1 diffusion in Italy. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract MoD1823],Vancouver. July 7-12.

This paper reviews the role of media campaigns in AIDS prevention. Non-profit associations contribute in the national campaigns to fight AIDS by targeting selected groups of people which are at very high risk for HIV infection. To promote a better knowledge about HIV infection clear and simple programmes of information are necessary. Mass media were able to extensively diffuse information on HIV infection.

LYTTLETON, C. (1994).

Knowledge and meaning: The AIDS education campaign in rural northeast Thailand. Social Science & Medicine, 38(1):135-146.

The author describes results of a qualitative research conducted in Northeastern Thailand focusing on extent of knowledge and attitudes of men and women on sexuality-related issues and HIV/AIDS. The most important findings focus on low levels of knowledge on the disease and factors causing vulnerability, indicating unequal coverage of information and education programmes that have largely covered Northern Thailand and Bangkok.

LYTTLETON, C. (1996).

Messages of distinction: The HIV/AIDS media campaign in Thailand. Medical Anthropology. 16(4):363-389.

Since 1990, HIV/AIDS warning messages have been aired regularly and repeatedly on Thai television as part of the national strategy to minimize transmission of HIV. The education and prevention messages chosen do more than suggest measures to avoid infection. It is the pervasive and often fear-based associations born of the media material that, in large part, establish the basis for emergent practice when thoughts or actions are triggered by consideration of HIV/AIDS.

MCALLISTER, M.P. (1992).

AIDS, medicalization, and the news media. In T. Edgar, M.A. Fitzpatrick, and V.S. Freimuth (Eds.). AIDS: A Communication Perspective. (p.195-221). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

In a critical approach towards understanding news coverage of AIDS, the author explores the medicalization of society thesis as a theoretical approach to understanding the expansive and political nature of Western medicine.

MAEDA, M., INAGAKI, T., ISHII, A., ASHIZAWA, M., & MINAMITANI, M. (1994).

The effects of education campaigns for AIDS/HIV through mass media from 1992 to 1994. X Int. Conf. AIDS, 10, 72 (abstract no. 568D),Tokyo. Aug. 7-12.

MAIBACH, E., SALMON, C.T., & LONG, D. (1995).

How effective are public health communication campaigns? Paper presented at the International Communication Association Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

MARGO, G., MACDONALD, G., SCHNEIDER, A., DAYRIT, M., ABAD, M., & CONSUNJUI, B. (1991).

The importance of social marketing techniques in creating effective media campaigns on AIDS. VII Int. Conf. AIDS. 7, 456 (abstract no. W.D. 4273).

MATA, L, QUESADA, J., & RAMIREZ, G. (1993.)

HIV/AIDS in Costa Rica: epidemiological and sociological features. Cell and Molecular Biology. 41, Supplement 1:S53-63.

This paper reports on the reality of the AIDS in Costa Rica. Persons with HIV/AIDS often are deprived of social and medical benefits or are subjected to harassment and exploitation by the health sector. More efficient prevention must target children, adolescents, and adults in reproductive age to promote safer lifestyles through education and counselling, effected through primary health care.

MCGUIRE, W.J. (1984).

Public communication as a strategy for inducing health-promotion behavior change. Preventive Medicine. 13:299-319.

This chapter examines the literature that has resulted in the formulation of the idea that information technology and knowledge expansion result in some people becoming information poor. Theoretical trends challenging this assumption are presented.

MENARD, C., HADENGUE, M.C., SPEISSER, L., BALLEREAU, M., ROUSILLE, R., & BELINGARD-DEYBACH, F. (1998).

Impact of prevention campaigns targetted to overseas populations initiated by the French Ministry of Health. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 34213. Geneva, June 28-July 13, p.728.

The authors assess the effectiveness of a campaign designed to change stereotypical and negative images of people living with HIV in the French overseas departments (the Antilles, Guiana, and Reunion) since 1995. Results show that social images and attitudes toward people living with HIV in these areas have changed significantly, with great improvements in tolerance and solidarity.

MENDELSOHN, H. (1973).

Some reasons why information campaigns can succeed. Public Opinion Quarterly. 39:50-61.

A classic paper on communications in which the author emphasizes the need to determine appropriate targets, themes, appeals and media vehicles to achieve attitudinal, behavioural and social change through information campaigns.

MIDDLESTADT, S.E., FISHBEIN, M., ALBARRACIN, D., FRANCIS, C. ET AL. (1995).

Evaluating the impact of a national AIDS prevention radio campaign in St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 25 (1):21-34.

According to the authors, results of this evaluation show that a well-designed, empirically-based mass media campaign can be effective in preventing the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

MILLS, S., CAMPBELL, M.J., & WATERS, W.E. (1986).

Public knowledge of AIDS and the DHSS advertisement campaign. British Medical Journal. 293:1089-1090.

Although the authors acknowledge limitations in the design of this study, it is argued that the public seems to have been reasonably well informed by the DHSS (Department of Health and Human Services) campaign.

MOATTI, J.P., DAB, W., LOUNDOU, H., QUENEL, P., BELTZER, N., ANES, A., & POLLAK, M. (1992).

Impact on the general public of media campaigns against AIDS: A French evaluation. Health Policy. 21:233-247.

MOI, H., MELBYE, M., MISFELDT, J., OLSEN, J., & FROMS, E. (1993).

Changes in knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behavior and practice among STD patients in Greenland 1990-1992. Monitoring the STOP AIDS campaign in Greenland. Arctic Medical Research, 52 (4):145-52.

Owing to a high incidence of STDs, Greenland is considered to be a high-risk area for an AIDS epidemic. This is the second report from surveys of knowledge, sexual behaviour and practice and STD patients in Greenland. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires from 1990 to 1992 in Nuuk, Sisimiut and Angmagssalik. The results from Nuuk in 1992 are compared to results from a similar survey in 1990.

MYRICK, R. (1996).

Speaking from the margins: Communication strategies used in African American HIV prevention campaigns in Alabama. Howard Journal of Communications. 7 (3):241-255.

The author examines current communication strategies used in Alabama in the HIV-prevention efforts designed for African-Americans, focuses on work conducted in urban areas.

NOWAK, G.J., & SISKA, M.J. (1995).

Using research to inform campaign development and message design: Examples from the "America Responds to AIDS" campaign. In E. Maibach & R.L. Parrott (Eds.), Designing Health Messages: Approaches from Communication Theory and Public Health Practice. Newbury Park , CA: Sage.

Drawing from the "America responds to AIDS" the authors discuss mass communication, marketing and research methods to formulate, develop, and evaluate HIV/AIDS education and prevention messages.

NURRA, G., IPPOLITO, G., GIRARDI, E., & ET AL. (1996).

Impact of HIV media campaigns on demand of counseling and testing. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract MoD1936],Vancouver. July 7-12.

A study that evaluates the effects of the national AIDS Information Campaigns in the context of first-time HIV testing trends at the major Counselling and Testing Site (CTS) in Rome. The authors report that data may indicate that the campaign did lead to an increase in public awareness of the risk of AIDS and suggest that monitoring of HIV counselling and testing requests can be a useful tool in the evaluation of the impact of an information campaign.

NYANJOOM, G.O., & MWONGELA, J.M. (1998).

Circumventing lack of clear cut policies on HIV/AIDS to carry out behavior change communication: "Jisimamie" campaign in Nyanza, Kenya. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 33482. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.685.

A report on the Kenya-Belgium STD project, an IEC campaign aimed at changing sexual behaviours in an environment where no clear policies on HIV/AIDS prevention exist. Education and prevention materials under the title of Jisimamie were disseminated, and results indicated great demand for materials. The authors conclude that even in an environment without clear policies for prevention, behavioural change can be achieved through innovative communication strategies.

PATH/PHILIPPINES (1997).

"Peer education: A second look", Issues. August. Manila.

PATH/PHILIPPINES (1996).

Education Strategy 1996-1998. AIDS Surveillance and Education Project. Report to USAID. Manila.

PATH/THAILAND (1996).

PATH Technical Assistance to Worksite AIDS Communication Projects in Bangkok. Unpublished monograph. Bangkok.

PATH/THAILAND. (1995).

PATH Technical Assistance to Service Worker Outreach Project. Reports to USAID/AIDSCAP. Bangkok.

These four reports by PATH describe project experiences and activities on HIV/AIDS prevention and education. The reports focus on outreach and peer education as a strategy for prevention programs conducted in worksites and networks of risk groups.

PATTERSON, T.E. (1980).

The Mass Media Election: How Americans Choose Their President. New York, NY: Praeger.

This report gives a detailed look at several aspects of media campaigns in presidential elections in the U.S. Voting behaviour, role of the press, media campaigns, political advertising, and the many changes that take place in political campaigns are discussed.

PELE, G., MENARD, G., & RAMON, A. ET AL. (JULY, 1996).

National response towards impact of prevention advertising campaigns targeting homosexual men, initiated by the French Ministry of Health: global evaluation and perception among the general public and homosexual men. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract MoD1817], Vancouver, July 7-12.

The authors report that several lessons were learned from this evaluation of a Summer AIDS Prevention Campaign in France. In general, these campaigns are perceived as carrying real effects: changing the perception of the general public about homosexuality, helping homosexual men who did not come out with a better access to prevention, supporting HIV+ people in their daily life. Authors conclude that these results, completed by qualitative studies, are encouraging for continuing and developing new communication strategies to help men having sex with men to set safer sexual behaviours.

PERLOFF, R.M. (1991).

Effects of an AIDS communication campaign. Journalism Quarterly. 68 (4):638-643.

An AIDS communication campaign in Cleveland, OH involved the distribution of brochures and pamphlets and the use of billboards to target intravenous drug users. Results showed an increase in general public awareness of AIDS as a social problem but did not result in a significant increase in knowledge of how to prevent AIDS.

RAY, M. (1973).

Marketing communication and the hierarchy of effects. In P. Clark (Ed.), New Models for Communication Research (p.147-176). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

The author explains the importance of examining structures in communication responses for theory building and application of results. Experimental data on the effects of repetition when used in advertising are presented.

REINA, F. (1998).

National awareness campaign in a country where silence rules. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 34217. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.728.

The author discusses an ongoing campaign developed by an NGO and an advertising agency as a response to what they considered lack of action on the part of the Venezuelan government to effectively inform the public that AIDS can affect anyone. Some of the strategies used in the campaign are described.

RIGBY, K., BROWN, M., ANAGNOSTOU, P., & ROSS, M.W. (1989).

Shock tactics to counter AIDS: The Australian experience. Psychology and Health. 3:145-159.

No significant overall increase is found in either personal or social concerns about AIDS after evaluating a media campaign developed in 1988. The view that fear-inducing techniques would increase learning and attitude change is not supported.

ROSS, J.D., & SCOTT, G.R. (1993).

The association between HIV media campaigns and number of patients coming forward for HIV antibody testing. Genitourinary Medicine. 69 (3):193-195.

This study assessed the relationship between national and local media campaigns with respect to the number of patients requesting HIV antibody tests as a surrogate marker of the effectiveness of different campaign strategies. Television based media campaigns produced the greatest increase in testing rates (average 46% increase over two months) compared with newspapers and poster campaigns (average 6% increase over two months). Regional HIV testing rates correlated significantly with GUM clinic testing rates. No increase in positive HIV tests was seen following media campaigns.

ROSS, M.W., RIGBY, K., ROSSER, B.R., ANAGNOSTOU, P., & BROWN, M. (1990).

The effect of a national campaign on attitudes toward AIDS. AIDS Care. 2:339-346.

Following a national campaign in Australia which had shown no change in level of knowledge about AIDS the authors assessed attitude change toward, and beliefs about AIDS in a national sample. Results indicated that there were changes in beliefs about how much is known about the transmission of HIV, and that people were less concerned about casual transmission.

ROSS, M.W., & CARSON, J.A. (1988).

Effectiveness of distribution of information on AIDS: A national study of six media in Australia. New York State Journal of Medicine. 88:239-241.

The researchers assess the effects of exposure to media information on AIDS. Results show that exposure to information reduced levels of fear.

RUKARANGIRA, N.W., NGIRABAKUNZI, K., BIHIMI, Y., & KITEMBO, M. (1990).

Evaluation of the AIDS information program, using mass media campaign, in Lumumbashi-Zaire. VI Int. Conf. AIDS.6, 293 (abstract no F.D. 844), San Francisco. June 20-23.

SALAAMU, P., TAMWESIGIRE, E., MEINERT, L. (1996).

AIDS education among adolescents in Uganda: an evaluation of "Straight Talk" media program. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract PubD1309], Vancouver. July 7-12.

"STRAIGHT TALK" (ST) a media program to Safeguard Youth From AIDS (SYFA) was initiated in 1993 as a strategy to develop and stimulate dialogue on AIDS, health and growing up among young people, their parents and teachers. Researchers report that the empowerment of adolescents with knowledge, information and advice to understand their bodies and emotions to cope safely with sexual feelings is vital in controlling the spread of STD/HIV. The success and desired impact of the project has been significantly influenced by cultural acceptance.

SALMON, C.T., & JASON, J. (1991).

A system for evaluating the use of media in CDC's National AIDS Information and Education Program. Public Health Reports. 106:639-644.

A prototypical system of research for use in the evaluation of the National AIDS Information and Education Program's (NAIEP) media campaign was designed by the National Academy of Sciences. The ways in which the CDC's system was used and adapted during one year of research activities are outlined.

SCHOOLER, C., FEIGHERY, E., & FLORA, J.A. (1996).

Relationship of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing and smoking. American Journal of Public Health. 86(9):1216-1221.

This paper examines the extent of adolescents' perceived exposure to cigarette marketing and the relationship of this perception to smoking behaviour. Recommendations highlight the need for more effective legislation on cigarette marketing.

SEKOU, D., SAIHOU, C., AMIE, C., & THEOPHILUS, G. (1989).

A multidimensional approach to promote awareness of AIDS in the Gambia. V Int. Conf. AIDS. 5, 861 (abstract no. W.E.P. 8), Montreal. June 4-9.

SEPULVEDA, J., IZAZOLA, J.A., VALDESPINO, J.L., MONDRAGON, M., & TOWNSEND, J. (1989).

Massive campaign for AIDS education, achievements and problems. V Int. Conf. AIDS. 5, 978 (abstract no. T.G.O. 9), Montreal. June 4-9.

SHERR, L. (1987).

An evaluation of the UK government health education campaign on AIDS. Psychology and Health. 1:61-72.

An evaluation of media campaign based on one-page ads in the national press was evaluated. Results indicate that information scores were slightly increased but the campaign had no effect on adjusting misconceptions and anxiety was not lowered.

SPEISSER, L., RAMON, A., PELE, G. ET AL. (JULY, 1996).

Prevention advertising campaigns in France: from a product communication to a communication based on risky situations. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract ThC4518], Vancouver. July 7-12.

This research reviews a new strategy of communication initiated by the French Ministry of Health. The authors concluded that messages targeted to specific audiences and dealing precisely with different risky situations can be accepted by the general public. Communicating precisely about the different risky situations through general population campaigns increases the strength of the prevention messages as well as it enables to reach people from groups more vulnerable to acquiring HIV and hard to reach through targeted networks.

STINSON, J.C. (1993).

Shooting off fireworks: The successes and failures of an intensive, broad-based AIDS Awareness Campaign. Revue Canadienne de Santublique. 84 (1):S52-S54.

During the autumn of 1991, a group of Manitoba AIDS organizations came together to organize, promote and deliver an eight-week AIDS Awareness Campaign that addressed a broad spectrum of HIV/AIDS-related issues. This campaign attempted to satisfy a variety of organizational agendas. Although it achieved its goals and was a very visible, though short-lived exercise in AIDS awareness, this campaign proved to be taxing on local community-based resources.

STUTZ STEIGER, T., WASSERFALLEN, F., LANDERT, C., DUBOIS-ARBER, F., OBRIST, B., & SOMAINI, B. (1992).

A media campaign in Switzerland targeted at the clients of prostitutes. VIII Int. Conf. AIDS. 8, D498 (abstract no. PoD 5659). July 19-24.

TOPPICH, J., CHRISTIANSEN, G., POTT, E. (JULY, 1996).

Effectiveness of the first 10 years of the national AIDS prevention campaign in Germany. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract MoD1819], Vancouver. July 7-12.

Evaluations of the AIDS-prevention campaign in the Federal Republic of Germany have been consistently accompanied by evaluation studies which examine the changes in knowledge, attitudes and behavioural patterns by way of annual surveys. As a result of these studies, time series data covering a period of 10 years are available concerning the development of condom use, protective intentions and protective skills.

TRAEEN, B. (1992).

Learning from Norwegian experience: attempts to mobilize the youth culture to fight the AIDS epidemic. AIDS Education and Prevention. Fall Suppl., 43-56.

This study describes to what extent Norwegian adolescents were aware of a campaign to combat the spread of AIDS, and their participation in the various components. The intention of the campaign was to mobilize the youth culture in the fight against AIDS with a view to internalizing existing knowledge about HIV and AIDS in the hope of improving consistency between knowledge and sexual behaviour. Use of condoms was apparently no higher among adolescents who were generally aware of the campaign than among adolescents with no knowledge of it. The study concludes that the campaign would probably have enjoyed higher success if the message had been more direct and more relevant to the context.

TREISE, D., WEIGOLD, M.F., CONNA, J., & GARRISON, H. (1984).

Ethics in advertising: Ideological correlates of consumer perceptions. Journal of Advertising. 23(3):59-69.

The authors investigate the perceptions of familiar advertising controversies that are obtained from a diverse sample of 292 consumers. Targeting practices and message strategies are discussed. Results show that consumers believe advertising often violates ethical norms.

WASSERFALLEN, F., STUTZ, S.T., SUMMERMATTER, D., HAUSERMANN, M., & DUBOIS-ARBER, F. (1993).

Six years of promotion of condom use in the framework of the National Stop AIDS Campaign: Experiences and results in Switzerland. IX Int. Conf. AIDS. 9, 130 (abstract no. WS-D27-3). Berlin. June 6-11.

WELLER, I.V.D., HINDLEY, D.J., ADLER, M.W., & MELDRUM, J.T. (1984).

Gonorrhoea in homosexual men and media coverage of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in London 1982-3. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Education. 289, 1041.

This research investigates whether increased coverage of HIV/AIDS information by the media correlates with a reduction of gonorrhoea and other STDs in homosexual men. No substantial changes were found.

WELLINGS, K. (1992).

Assessing HIV/AIDS Preventive Strategies in the General Population. In F. Paccaud; J.P. Vader, and F. Gutzwiller (Eds.). Assessing AIDS Prevention. (P.287-291). Final report of the Working Group, EC Concerted Action.

An analysis of the European Community Concerted Action Program on HIV/AIDS prevention. Initial analysis show that there have been remarkable parallels between AIDS public education campaigns in different European countries in terms of their sequence, progression and content.

WESSELS, R. CLAYPOOL, C., SINGH, S., & PRAZ, V. (JULY, 1996).

Innovative mass media campaigns key to disseminating AIDS messages. XI Int. Conf. AIDS. [abstract TuD2884], Vancouver. July 7-12.

This abstract examines innovative mass-media projects that communicate vital information to motivate the adoption of safer sex practices and that constitute innovative and effective awareness strategies to reach different populations at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Examples include the radio project "Disha" in India; nationally televised debates in Burundi; and Condom Soirees in Rwanda, Malawi, and Benin (condom soirees include games, contests, and skits together with condom demonstrations held at places where young people congregate). The authors argue that innovative mass media approaches are effective in reaching target populations with critical information and helping motivate safer sex practices. However, they require both original approaches and a thorough understanding of the target population and its knowledge, misconceptions, and fears.

WITTE, K. (1995).

Using scare tactics to promote safer sex among juvenile detention and high school youth. Journal of Applied Communication Research. 23(2):128-142.

This study tests the effectiveness of various levels of fear appeals among high and low sensation-seekers in a high school and juvenile detention centre. The results found that low-sensation seekers were persuaded to adopt safer sex behaviours regardless of the threat level of the fear appeal.

WOBER, J.M. (1988).

Informing the British public about AIDS. Health Education Research. 3(1):19-24.

A study on the effectiveness of a TV public health education campaign in 1987. Results indicate higher knowledge levels of HIV/AIDS. However, concern is raised about possible lower perception of risk due to knowledge increase.

WOODS, D.R., DAVIS, D., & WESTOVER, B.J. (1991).

"America Responds to AIDS": Its content, development process, and outcome. Public Health Reports. 106:616-622.

This paper discusses the "America Responds to AIDS Campaign". The authors argue that ARTA represents one of the most comprehensive, formative research processes in the history of public service campaigns. The dynamic process of carefully developing each new phase to include such important entities as state and local health agencies and community-based organizations is discussed.