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close this bookCommunications Programming for HIV/AIDS: An annotated bibliography (UNAIDS, 1999, 111 p.)
close this folderPart II
View the documentHIV/AIDS media campaigns
View the documentChannels of communication
View the documentInterpersonal/small-group communication
View the documentMedia advocacy
View the documentEntertainment - education

Entertainment - education

ALEXANDER, W. (1990).

Clearing space: AIDS theatre in Atlanta. The Drama Review. 34(3):109-128.

The author reviews an innovative way of dealing with the effects of AIDS on the gay community in Atlanta. Rebecca Hanson's play "Higher Ground" is also discussed.

ARMSTRONG, S. (1997).

Soul city. World Health. 50(6):24-25.

The success of UNICEF-sponsored soap opera Soul City in South Africa is reviewed. This soap opera has dealt with several public health issues such as HIV/AIDS, TB, smoking, childbearing, and breastfeeding.

BANDURA, A. (1986).

Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

The author presents a comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social-cognitive perspective. The prominent roles played by cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes in psychosocial functioning are addressed. Reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive, behavioural, and environmental factors is emphasized; and the basic principles of this theory are systematically applied to personal and social change.

BANDURA, A. (1992).

A social cognitive approach to the exercise of control over AIDS infection. In R. DiClemente (Ed.), Adolescents and AIDS: A generation in Jeopardy. (P.89-116). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

In this chapter the author discusses the role of social cognitive learning in HIV prevention programmes, with a focus on self-efficacy, and argues that a multifaceted approach to the prevention and management of AIDS plays an important role.

BANDURA, A. (1994).

A social cognitive theory of HIV infection. In R. DiClemente & J. Peterson (Eds.), Preventing AIDS: Theories and Methods of Behavioral Interventions. (P.25-60). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

A revised and updated chapter which appeared in "Adolescents and AIDS: A Generation in Jeopardy", R. DiClemente. (1992). The author examines the role of social cognitive learning in HIV prevention programmes, with a focus on self-efficacy, and argues that a multifaceted approach to the prevention and management of AIDS plays an important role.

BASOMPRA, K. (1992).

The potential of drama and songs as channels for AIDS education in Africa: A report on focus group findings from Ghana. International Quarterly of Community Health Education. 12(4): 317-342.

This study evaluates the impact of drama and songs on AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. Results show that the strategies are successful in generating discussion about AIDS between spouses, and that potential behaviour changes seem to follow the direction advocated in the play.

BROWN, W. (1990).

Ethical dilemmas of prosocial television. Communication Quarterly. 38(3):268-280.

Given the increasing use of entertainment television for educational and pro-social development purposes, ethical dilemmas of pro-social television are examined.


Multi-level community participation: Script development and approval process for a teen-oriented radio soap opera. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 60802. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.1148.

Examines an HIV-prevention, teen oriented soap opera targeting adolescent African-Americans developed by the Nashville Prevention Marketing Initiative and sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control. Community approval of the script was sought by producers, and the process has increased community participation in the project.

DALRYMPLE, L., & DU TOIT, M.K. (1993).

The evaluation of a drama approach to AIDS education. Educational Psychology. 13(2):147-154.

The authors evaluate a drama intervention aimed at disseminating knowledge and changing attitudes about AIDS among Zulu-speaking high school students. Results indicate that there were no significant changes in existing attitudes except concerning promiscuity. However, significant improvements were reported in knowledge of AIDS-related information.

DEANE, J. (1997).

The influence of AIDS Today radio. World Health. 50(6):22-23.

Presents AIDS Today, a 15-minute radio programme produced by the Panos Institute and broadcast worldwide. The implications of such programmes for spreading knowledge of AIDS are discussed.

ELKAMEL, F. (1995).

The use of television series in health education. Health Education Research. 10(2):225-232.

A review of the impact of TV drama series on health beliefs, attitudes and behaviours in Egypt, especially among illiterate groups. "Family House", an entertaining TV series that disseminates health messages, is presented as a case study.


Turkey's mass media family planning campaign. In Backer, T., & Rogers, E. (Eds.), Organizational Aspects of Health Communication Campaigns: What Works? Newbur Park, CA: Sage.

An evaluation of Turkey's Family Planning Campaign. The article focuses on the organizational aspects of the campaign and the capacity to achieve a high level of commercial quality in the production the campaign's media messages.


AIDS: Learning to live - a radio project in Russia. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 33486. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.685.

The authors examine a joint project by the Russian NAMES Fund and BBC-Moscow Service in which songs by popular Russian performers and AIDS awareness messages by medical workers are used to educate the public about AIDS. Music and HIV messages are further supported by telephone and mail information.

LOZANO, E. (1992).

The force of myth on popular narratives: The case of melodramatic serials. Communication Theory. 2(3):207-220.

The author discusses the continous overlapping between entertainment and education which points towards a process of social culturalization. The role of myth in this process is examined.

MAIBACH, E., & HOLTGRAVE, D.R. (1995).

Advances in public health communication. Annual Review of Public Health. 16:219-238.

This paper analyses recent, innovative communication strategies to deal with public health issues. Some of the strategies reviewed are media advocacy, risk communication, and entertainment-education. The need to diffuse state-of-the-art communication strategies is emphasized.

MARION, F. (1996).

Theatre in the service of health education: Case studies from Uganda. New Theatre Quarterly. 12(46):108-115.

Two plays used to support AIDS education and prevention programmes in Uganda are analysed. The author expands his analysis to the increasing use of theatre as a useful communication strategy for social development programmes and behaviour change.


Using participatory drama to communicate STD/HIV/AIDS related messages in wrokplace settings - The Tanzanian experience. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 13456. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.177.

This paper reports on an AIDS intervention programme aimed at disseminating knowledge of the disease through participatory drama. Participating organizations have formed their own drama groups and developed AIDS-related plays. Discussions following the plays have proven to be very successful. Some of the lessons learned indicate that drama can be an effective communication strategy that is both localized and accessible.

MCANANY, E. (1993).

The telenovela and social change. In Fadul, A.M. (Ed.) Serial Fiction in TV: The Latin American Telenovelas. (p.135-148). University of SPaulo: SPaulo.

Emphasizes the need to study one of the most popular television genres worldwide within a more comprehensive social, cultural, and political context.

NARIMAN, H.N. (1993).

Soap Operas for Social Change: Toward a Methodology for Entertainment-education Television.

Based on the work of Miguel Sabido, a Mexican television producer, the author presents the development of a methodology for the use of soap operas for social change, leading to the formation of the entertainment-education strategy.

PIOTROW, P.T. (1994).

Entertainment-education: An idea whose time has come. Population Today. 22(3):4-5.

The author examines the use of soap operas, variety shows, dramas, serials, and other entertainment media formats as part of media campaigns for family planning, children's safety, and public health issues. It argues that entertainment-education projects are pervasive, personal, passionate, popular, profitable, and practical.

ROGERS, E., & ANTOLA, L. (1985).

Telenovelas: A Latin American success story. Journal of Communication. 35(4):24-35.

This article documents the growing success of Latin American soap operas ("telenovelas"). Data on production, import-export, and audience ratings of "telenovelas" are presented. Implications of this new flow of television programming are discussed.

RYERSON, W. (1994).

Population Communications International: Its role in family planning soap operas. Population & Environment. 15(4):255-264.

The author discusses the use of soap operas to address issues such as status of women, open family communications, and family planning by Population Communications International. It argues that the use of soap operas is a very effective communication strategy for family planning programmes.

RUBIN, R.B., & MCHUGH, M.P. (1987).

Development of parasocial interaction relationships. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. (1993):279-292.

Based on principles of uncertaintity reduction theory, the authors conducted research on parasocial interaction relationships with TV personalities. Results indicate that parasocial interaction relationships follow a process from social and task attraction to parasocial interaction to a sense of relationship importance.


Positive approaches to education for sexual health with examples from Africa and Asia. Journal of Adolescent Health. 13(5):351-354.

The author outlines Family Life Education (FLE) programmes for young people in Africa and Asia. Some of the programmes have successfully utilized drama, songs, plays, and other entertainment formats along with youth centres, and income generation projects.

SINGHAL, A., & ROGERS, E. (1989).

Pro-social television for development in India. In Rice, R.E., & Atkin, C. (Eds.) Public Communication Campaigns, 2nd. Ed. (P.331-350). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The authors document "Hum Log", a development soap opera dealing with issues of women's status in India. Evaluation on the effects of the broadcasts show that soap operas can be effective tools in conveying social development messages.

SINGHAL, A., & BROWN, W. (1993).

Harnessing the potential of entertainment-education "telenovelas". Gazette. 51(1):1-18.

The authors review the role of the entertainment-education strategy based on "telenovelas". The authors focus on how "telenovelas" have been used to address issues of national development in Mexico and other developing nations.

SINGHAL, A., ROGERS, E., & OBREGON, R. (1998).

Reconstructing the story of "Simplemente Maria", the most popular telenovela of Latin America of all time. Gazette. 54(19):1-15.

The authors trace the origins of the entertainment-education strategy back to the success of "Simplemente Maria", a Peruvian soap opera broadcast in the late 1960s. The success of this soap opera inspired Mexican television producer Miguel Sabido to develop a theory and methodology framework for social use of soap operas.

SINGHAL, A., & WANG, M. (1992).

Ke Wang: A Chinese soap opera with a message. Gazette. 49(3):177-192.

An evaluation of the first domestically produced Chinese soap opera. The social and media impacts of the soap opera are examined.

SLABY, R.G. (1994).

Closing the education gap on TV's entertainment violence. Education Digest. 59(8):4-7.

Discusses the increasing representation of violence on television. The author argues that "entertainment" violence tends to depict violence as legitimate and justifiable.

SVENKERUD, P.J., & SINGHAL, A. (1995).

Incorporating ambiguity and archetypes in entertainment-education programming: Lessons learned from Oshin. Gazette. 55(3):147-168.

Research conducted on the success of a popular Japanese TV soap opera suggests that using strategically ambiguous messages and cultural archetypes can increase the effectiveness of entertainment-education programmes.

THI, K.N. (1998).

Attitude change through soap opera for AIDS prevention in Vietnam - Produced by CARE International in Vietnam: Funded by the Commission of European Communities' AIDS Task Force. XII World AIDS Conference. Abstract 34211. Geneva, June 28-July 3, p.727.

Thi describes CARE's "Window blows through dark and light", a soap opera aimed at educating viewers about HIV/AIDS through an entertaining drama series, and its success in Vietnam. Results show that the use of soap operas is an effective communication strategy for conveying educational messages in an entertaining way.

YODER, P.S., HORNIK, R., & CHIRWA. B.C. (1996).

Evaluating the program effects of a radio drama about AIDS in Zambia. Studies in Family Planning. 27(4):188-203.

The authors apply an analytical approach to evaluate the programme effects of a radio drama in Zambia designed to disseminate AIDS information. They consider evidence that broadcasting this drama for nine months had an impact on knowledge and behaviour related to AIDS among Bemba speakers in northern Zambia. The authors conclude that while the population as a whole improved its knowledge substantially, and some people reported having reduced risky behaviour, attributing these changes to the programme itself is not possible.