|Blood Transfusion Services Impact Model and Manual (UNAIDS, 1999, 29 p.)|
|1. Introduction to Blood 3.0 and project|
A collaborative research project between UNAIDS and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, has been working since 1994 to develop methodologies to determine the costs and likely impact of a range HIV prevention strategies - the strengthening of blood transfusion services, the strengthened distribution of condoms, school education, the strengthening of sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment services, interventions working with sex workers and their clients, and interventions working with injecting drug users.
HIVTools: a cost-effectiveness toolkit for HIV prevention is currently being developed. HIVTools consists of 1) a set of five simulation models that estimate the impact on HIV and STD transmission of different HIV prevention activities, and 2) guidelines for costing different HIV prevention activities. HIVTools can be used to estimate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of different HIV prevention strategies in different settings.
Blood 3.0 is one of the models within HIVTools. It has been developed to estimate the impact of different HIV prevention activities. Blood 3.0 can be used, within a particular setting, to obtain estimates of the impact of interventions to strengthen the delivery of blood transfusion services. It can also be used to explore what may be the likely impact of different policy options. Estimates of the extent to which the strengthening of blood transfusion services may avert HIV infection among the main recipients of blood products are obtained by comparing the projected number of HIV infections estimated to have occurred in a particular year, if the intervention had not been implemented, with the projected number of HIV infections estimated to have occurred in the presence of the intervention. Comparisons are made using information on the pre and post intervention patterns of blood collection, testing and transfusion.
From conception, the aim was to develop a simple tool that could be used to provide applied intervention specific insights of use to Program Managers and policy makers at the national and local level. For this reason, the structure of Blood 3.0 has been geared towards using the routine forms of monitoring and evaluation data currently being collected by blood transfusion services. It is hoped that this approach can be used to improve understanding of the impact blood transfusion services, and the potential impact of different forms of possible changes in blood collection, testing and transfusion practice.