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close this bookUNAIDS Technical Update Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (Best Practice - Technical Update) (UNAIDS, 1998, 11 p.)
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View the documentAt a Glance
View the documentBackground
View the documentThe Challenges
View the documentThe Responses
View the documentSelected Key Materials

Selected Key Materials

Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovudine treatment. New England Journal of Medicine, 1994; 331:1173 80. This study conducted in France and the USA in 1993 with 477 HIV-positive pregnant women found effective reduction of MTCT using a regimen of zidovudine administered during pregnancy and delivery to women and to new-born children.

Dunn DT, Newell ML, Ades AE, Peckham CS. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission through breastfeeding. The Lancet, 1992; 340:585 588. A meta-analysis of nine studies in order to determine the quantitative risk of HIV transmission via breastfeeding.

Mandelbrot L, Mayaux MJ, Bongain A et al. Obstetric factors and mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: the French prenatal cohorts. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1996; 175:661 667. In this study, preterm delivery, intra-partum haemorrhage and obstetric procedures were related to transmission risk.

Marseilles E, Kahn KG, Saba J. The cost-effectiveness of short-course Zidovudine therapy to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania and Thailand. XII World AIDS Conference, 1998 (Abstract #23598). Models cost-effectiveness of short-course ZDV therapy in combination with and without replacement feeding in low-and medium-income countries.

Msellati P, Newell M-J, Dabis F. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Africa, America, and Europe: results from 13 perinatal studies. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retro-virology, 1995; 8:506 510. This study of transmission rates of HIV-1 in women known to be HIV-positive recommended two standardized methods to calculate rates from different studies in different parts of the world.

Newell ML, Gray G, Bryson Y. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-+ infection. AIDS, 1997; 11 (suppl A): S165 S172. Discussion of existing interventions currently available or under study.

Kuhn L, Stein Z. Infant survival, HIV infection, and feeding alternatives in less-developed countries. American Journal of Public Health, 1997; 87:926 931. This study simulated 3 models of infant feeding using various estimates of non-AIDS mortality and risk of mother-to-child transmission. The lowest frequency of adverse outcomes occurs if no HIV-positive women breastfeed and all HIV-negative women breastfeed.

Reggy A, Simonds RJ, Rogers M. Preventing perinatal HIV transmission. AIDS 1997, 11 (suppl A): S61 S67. Discussion of MTCT risk factors, and of interventions currently available or under study.

UNAIDS, UNICEF and WHO. HIV and infant feeding. Geneva: UNAIDS, UNICEF, World Health Organization, 1998. Three modules were published (1) Guidelines for decision-makers (2) A Guide for health care managers and supervisors (3) A review of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Available on the UNAIDS website at

© Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 1998. All rights reserved. This publication may be freely reviewed, quoted, reproduced or translated, in part or in full, provided the source is acknowledged. It may not be sold or used in conjunction with commercial purposes without prior written approval from UNAIDS (contact: UNAIDS Information Centre, Geneva see page 2.). The views expressed in documents by named authors are solely the responsibility of those authors. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this work do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNAIDS concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers and boundaries. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products do not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by UNAIDS in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.