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close this bookWater Manual for Refugee Situations (UNHCR, 1992, 160 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentDrinking water
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Assessment and organization
Open this folder and view contents3. The need
Open this folder and view contents4. Immediate response during emergencies
Open this folder and view contents5. Refugee water supply systems
Open this folder and view contents6. Water sources, their protection and development
Open this folder and view contents7. Pumping equipment
Open this folder and view contents8. Water treatment
Open this folder and view contents9. Water storage
Open this folder and view contents10. Water distribution systems
Open this folder and view contents11. Operation and maintenance of water supply systems
Open this folder and view contents12. Management of emergency water supply systems
View the documentAnnex A - Refugee water supply inventory forms
View the documentAnnex B - Approximate daily water requirements in refugee emergency situations
View the documentAnnex C - Guidelines on water quality
View the documentAnnex D - Recommended format for technical specifications for water well construction

Annex B - Approximate daily water requirements in refugee emergency situations

(Only for indicative purposes, actual values depend on many variables that should be assessed by specialists)

1. Human consumption

a) Minimum, "survival" allocation.

7 litres per capita

b) Minimum refugee camp allocation.

15-20 litres per capita

2. Services, at camp level (Additional to human consumption)

a) Out-Patient Health Centres

5 litres per patient

b) In-Patient Health Centres

40-60 litres per patient

c) Hospital (with laundry facilities)

220-300 litres per bed

d) Schools (Toilet requirements not included)

2 litres per student

e) Schools (water-flushed toilet system)

10-15 litres per student

f) Feeding Centres

20-30 litres per patient

g) Camp Administration. (Staff accommodation not included)

5 litres per capita

h) Staff accommodation

30 litres per capita

i) Mosques

5 litres per visitor

3. Livestock

a) Bovine cattle (4-5 times weight of ingested dry food)

25-30 litres per head

b) Horses, mules (3-4 times weight of ingested dry food)

20-25 litres per head

c) Goats and sheep (2-3 times weight of ingested dry food)

15-20 litres per head

d) Pigs (2-2.5 times weight of ingested dry food)

10-15 litres per head

e) Chicken

10-20 litres per 100

Agricultural Crop Requirements

* "Rule of Thumb" for irrigation

1 litre per second per hectare

a) Vegetable gardens

3-6 litres per square meter

b) Maize

2.5-5 litres per square meter

c) Rice

3-5.5 litres per square meter

d) Tomatoes

2.5-5 litres per square meter

e) Onions

2.5-4 litres per square meter