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close this bookPackaging for Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops (FAO, 1988)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Packaging and post-harvest losses
View the document3. Characteristics of packaging
Open this folder and view contents4. Classification and designs for packaging
Open this folder and view contents5. Unitisation and standardisation
View the document6. Cost calculation
View the document7. Which type of packaging to use?
View the document8. Labelling of packages
View the document9. Retail packaging
Open this folder and view contents10. Instruction sheet
View the document11. Annexes

11. Annexes

Annex I. Different types and sizes of packaging.


FIG. 1. Annex 1. Different types and sizes of packaging.


FIG. 2. Annex 1. Different types and sizes of packaging (continued 1)


FIG. 3. Annex 1. Different types and sizes of packaging (continued 2)


FIG. 4. Annex 1. Different types and sizes of packaging (continued 3)


FIG. 5. Annex 1. Different types and sizes of packaging (continued 4)


FIG. 6. Annex 1. Different types and sizes of packaging (continued 5)

Annex II. Wooden collapsible crate, developed by TDRI.

SPECIFICATIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS: FOLDING WOODCRATE CUTTING LIST AND FITMENTS REQUIRED FOR BASIC AND MODIFIED MARK IV CRATE

Basic Mark IV Crate

The cutting flat required for the basic Mark IV crate with 6 mm boards for the lid, and 6 mm boards and struts for the bottom is listed la Table 1 and other parts are listed In Table 2.

TABLE 1. CUTTING LIST FOR MARK IV CRATE

Item No.

Description

Material

No. required

Length
mm

Width
mm

Thickness
mm

1

Side rail

Gommler

4

580

25

15

2

End rail

Gommler

4

380

25

15

3

Side board

Mahot cochon

14

298

70

6

4

Centre end board, wide

Mahot cochon

2

265

70

7

5

End board, narrow

Hahot cochon

8

330

50

6

6

End cross batten

Mahot cochon

2

326

35

6

7

Lid board

Mahot cochon

4

520

75

6

8

Lid batten

Mahot cochon

3

380

25

15

9

Bottom board

Mahot cochon

4

570

75

6

10

Bottom abut

Mahot cochon

3

322

35

6

There is a ± 2 &m tolerance on these figures. The use of reinforcing wire around the top and bottom of each side and end panel increases the dimensions by approximately 4 mm each way. The crate thus gives a 600 mm × 400 mm module suitable for pallet stacking.

Taken from: Report on a woodcrate development project in Dominica, for the East Caribbean, September - December 1986, by M.B. Burbage, tropical Development and Research Institute, London.

TABLE 2. FITMENTS REQUIRED FOR MARK IV CRATE

Item No.

Description

Size

Amount Required

Purpose

1

Rivet; domed head; aluminium alloy.

4.8 mm × 30 mm

8

Corner hinge.

2

Washers, metal

To fit rivets

8

-

3

Binding wire.

2 mm diameter

6.5 metres

Lid flea; crate reinforcement.

4

Staples; galvanised.

15 mm Chise 1 point

8

To fix ties to lid battens.




32

To fix reinforced wire to rails.

5

Staples; galvanised.

18 mm Chise 1 point*

70

To fix end cross battens to boards; lid boards and bottom boards to battens/struts.

6

Staples; galvanised.

30 mm Chise 1 point

94

To fix aide and end boards to rails.

* Initially 15 mm staples were used to fix bottom boards to struts; after the further drop-testing, these were changed to 18 mm to allow full clinching. 18 mm diverging point staples may be substituted for up to 54 of the 18 mm chisel point staples.

Crate Mark IV A - Thicker Lid and Bottom

Items in Table 1 should be altered as shown in Table 3.

TABLE 3. ALTERATIONS TO CUTTING LIST FOR MARK IV A CRATE

Item No.

Description

Material

No. required

Length mm

Width mm

Thickness mm

7

Lid Board

Mahot cochon

4

520

75

9

9

Bottom Board

Mahot cochon

4

570

75

9

10

Bottom Strut

Mahot cochon

3

322

35

9

Similarly, the 24 × 18 mm staples required for each of the lid and bottom should be changed to 30 mm staples. The minimum staple else necessary la 28 mm for the lids and 22 mm for the bottoms.

Crate Mark IV B - Thicker Lid and Bottom: Lid Extension

The alterations to the bottom are as for Mark IV A. Item 7 should be altered to length 545 mm, width 75 mm and thickness, 9 mm, to allow one end of the lid to fit under the side rail. The four metal ties may be retained but two or four plastic or string ties may be substituted.

TABLE 4. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR WOODCRATE MANUFACTURE

Item

Number Required


Minimum

Preferred

Band shingle saw

1


or Heavy duty bandsaw

1


or Circular saw (most wasteful of wood)

1


and Peeling or slicing machinery (for cutting thin boards)

1


Drill (to make rivet holes)

1


Pop rivet gun

1


Pneumatic stapler, hand-held (one for each staple type/sise)

1

3

Compressor (2 staplers run from 1 compressor)

1

2

Note. The use of a bent shingle saw has been suggested but information on blade life using mahot cochon and gommler is not available. Careful assessment is necessary of blade life/replacement blade cost for both the band shingle saw and bandsaw, versus wood wastage using a circular saw. A specially hardened metal cutting blade is recommended If a bandsaw la employed, but this is not resharpenable; use of an ordinary steel blade would involve frequent sharpening and purchase of a sharpening machine; this option is likely to prove more expensive than using a specially hardened blade.

It has not been possible to identify a peeling/slicing machine or a veneer lathe that would give suitable thickness boards or throughput, but it may be possible to have an appropriate machine manufactured. Known machines give 8 maximum thickness of 8 mm which would be satisfactory for box boards but not for the 9 mm boards of lid and bottom. Typical output would be higher than required e.g. 400 boards under 80 mm wide per minute. Again, the coat, if a suitable slicing machine can be identified, may militate against purchase, as £20,000 to £25,000 appears to be the average price for models from EC producers.

The equipment list presupposes access to workbench, plane, fabrication jigs (made from steel angle), and hand tools such as hammers and bolt cutters. Details of potential suppliers follow for Items where local supply is unlikely.

Potential Suppliers of Equipment for Woodcrate Manufacture

1. Band shingle saw (current model is for cedar shingles)

George Schell
335 Main Street
Foxboro Ontario KOK 2BO
Canada

It la possible that a one-off machine could be manufactured in Dominica with expertise from staff of Dominica Timbers or Davis Brothers.

2. Bandsaw

Wadkin plc (700 mm bandsaw, for saw blades up to 27 mm wide; coat approx. £2,500 fob)
Green Lane Works
Leicester LE5 4PF
England

George Schell (address as for 1) (Current models coat approx. Canadian $7000).

3. Peeling/Slicing Machine

Angelo Cremona and Figlio

S. Cremona and Figlio

Viale Lombardia 275

Via Farina 7

20052 Monza

20058 Villasanta (Milano)

Italy

Italy

T.E.M.S.A. (agents for Corali)

Corali

8 Avenue Jean-Foucault

Fonderie Officine die carobbio di Bruno

34500 Beziers

Corali

France

Via Bolgare 10


24060 Carobbio degli Angeli


Bergamo


Italy

(ea. Slicing machine with cutting width 950 mm, size of cut strips 10 mm to 180 mm; maximum thickness 8 mm; coat £20,000 to £25,000 approx.).

4. Stapling Machine

BeA Fastening Systems Ltd

British Industrial

Fastenings


Swinemore Industrial Estate

BIF House

Beverley

Gatehouse Road

Humberside HU17 OLA

Aylesbury

England

Bucks HP19 3DS


England

(various models, from £265)

5. Air Compressor

Suppliers as for 4. (Models with output 3.5 cfm to 4.2 cfm, from £260)

6. Staples

(Suppliers as for 4. e.g.

15 mm chisel point, £5.37 per 5000


18 mm chisel point, £6.04 per 5000


30 mm chisel point, £3.73 per 2000 from BeA)

7. Rivets

Aluminium alloy, domed head.

Primary Fixings

Gesipa Fasteners

127 Jockey Road

Dalton Road

Sutton Coldfield

Keighley

Birmingham B73 5PJ

West Yorkshire BD21 4JU

England

England

(Minimum size required, 4.8 mm × 30 mm; grip length 22-26 mm £34.99 per 1000 from Primary Fixings).

8. Potential Suppliers of Plastic Closures

Ease-Lok Ltd

Hellermann Insuloid

Unit G3

Sharston Works

Insworth Technology Park

Leestone Road

Insworth Lane

Wythenshawe

Gloucester GL3 1DL

Manchester M22 4RH

England

England

R K Packaging Ltd

Tripack (UK) Ltd

261 Bedford Road

Lancaster Approach

Kempston

North Killingholme

Bedford MK42 8BP

South Humberside DN40 3JZ

England

England


FIG. 1. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: GENERAL VIEW


FIG. 2. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: SIDE PANEL - INTERNAL VIEW


FIG. 3. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: SIDE PANEL - EXTERNAL VIEW


FIG. 4. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: END PANEL - INTERNAL VIEW


FIG. 5. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: END PANEL - EXTERNAL VIEW


FIG. 6. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: BOTTOM UNDERSIDE


FIG. 7. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: BOTTOM FROM ABOVE


FIG. 8. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: LID FROM ABOVE


FIG. 9. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV: LID FROM BELOW


FIG. 10. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV B: LID FROM ABOVE


FIG. 11. FOLDING WOODCRATE MARK IV B: LID UNDERSIDE

Annex III. DIMENSIONS OF TRANSPORT PACKAGES

Multiples

mm

inches

1200 × 1000

47.25 × 39.37

1200 × 800

47.25 × 31.50

1200 × 600

47.25 × 23.62

1200 × 400

47.25 × 15.75

800 × 600

31.50 × 23.62

Module

mm

inches

600 × 400

23.62 × 15.75

Sub-multiples

mm

inches

600 × 400

23.62 × 15.75

300 × 400

11.81 × 15.75

200 × 400

7.88 × 15.75

150 × 400

5.90 × 15.75

120 × 400

4.72 × 15.75

600 × 200

23.62 × 7.87

300 × 200

11.81 × 7.87

200 × 200

7.88 × 7.87

150 × 200

5.90 × 7.87

120 × 200

4.72 × 7.87

600 × 133

23.62 × 5.25

300 × 133

11.81 × 5.25

200 × 133

7.88 × 5.25

150 × 133

5.90 × 5.25

120 × 133

4.72 × 5.25

600 × 100

23.62 × 3.93

300 × 100

11.81 × 3.93

200 × 100

7.88 × 3.93

150 × 100

5.90 × 3.93

120 × 100

4.72 × 3.93

Annex IV. STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORT PACKAGES

Standard floor size: 600 × 400 mm

Height (mm)

Commodity

Content

300

Cabbage green

18 head

300

Cabbage green 7”

14 head

300

Lettuce (4-5”)

40 head

300

Lettuce (4 ½ - 5”)

30 head

300

Lettuce (5 ½ - 6 ½)

24 head

Standard floor size: 400 × 300 mm

Height

Commodity

Content

150

Okra

½ bunch

200

Eggplant


300

Bean (green)

31.5 pound

300

Lemon (115 +119)

132 count

300

Lemon (165 +172)

185 count

300

Pear

44.8 pound

300

Pepper (hot)

1 bunch

Standard floor size: 500 × 300 mm

Height

Commodity

Content

140

Grape

22.0 pound

160

Peach 2 ¼

26.0 pound

160

Peach 2 3/8

23.5 pound

160

Peach 2 7/16

25.9 pound

160

Peach 2 5/8

24.0 pound

160

Peach 2 13/16

24.5 pound

160

Peach 2 1/8

24.5 pound

200/300/400

Orange 88

90 count

200/300/400

Orange 100

98 count

200/300/400

Orange 113

110 count

230

Tomato

29.5 pound

250

Beans green

28 pound

300

Broccoli

14 bunches

300

Cucumber

85 count

300

Eggplant

21 count

300

Grapefruit 27

32 count

300

Grapefruit 36

40 count

300

Grapefruit 40

38 count

300

Grapefruit 48

53 count

300

Lettuce 4 ½ - 5 ½

24 head

300

Peach (South 2 ¼”)

45.8 pound

300

Pepper (Cuban)

25.8 pound

300

Pepper (green)

75 count

300

Pepper (red)

1 1/9 bunch

300

Potato (white)

57.2 jumble

300

Potato (round red)

45.0 pound

300

Romaine

18 head

300

Squash (Acorn)

33 count

300

Squash (Butternut)

24 count

300

Zucchini

1 1/9 bunch

Standard floor size: 500 × 400 mm

Height

Commodity

Content

110

Grape

24.0 pound

210

Melon, honeydew 7 ¾”

5 count

300

Cabbage (red)

16 head

300

Celery (Michigan 3”)

38 count

300

Greens (spinach, turnip, kale, collard)

25.6 pound

300

Lettuce (4-5”)

32 head

300

Lettuce (5 ½ - 6 ½”)

18 head

Annex V. COMPARING DIFFERENT PACKAGES USING THE CHECKLIST

In this example a comparison is made using the checklist (see next page) between:

- A carton box (banana), telescope design, size 508 × 330 × 184 mm, round slots, cost approximately US$ 1.-

- A wooden collapsible crate, 600 × 400 × 300 mm, cost around US$ 10.-

- A plastic stack-nest crate, 600 × 400 × 300 mm, cost around US$ 8.-

- A woven basket diameter 700 mm, height 800 mm, cost around US$ 2.-

Column 1

The package in this example is meant for use in the inter-island trade of fruits, vegetables and root crops and should be able to hold different commodities. The most important function of packaging in the inter-island trade is protection (40%), followed by cost (30%) and containing produce (20%) and then marketing and communication (5% each).

Column 2

Protection during handling, transport and marketing is considered the most important sub-function of protection (15%), followed by good ventilation, consistent dimensions, easy to clean and pilfer-proof (each 5%), etc.

Columns 3 to 6

Ad 1. The huckster/trafficker trade deals with all kind of perishable produce and the volumes of one commodity traded per huckster or trafficker often do not justify the use of packages with different capacities. The basket of one meter high is not suitable for soft fruits. The capacity of the carton box (30 liter) is not sufficient for large commodities such as watermelons.

Ad 2. Shifting of cargo is mainly done by hand and a basket with a volume of around 200 liter cannot be lifted by one person. The carton box is too easy to handle, in which case the person will lift two boxes at once and the grip will easily tear due to the higher weight.

Ad 3. A standard design would simplify handling of produce, but the holds of most inter-island vessels are not build for standard packaging. The basket is the only package in this example which has different designs and sizes.

Ad 4. Also here the sum of pallets is restrained by the hold of the vessels. Best fitting on a pallet are the 600 × 400 mm size crates, followed by the carton box.

Ad 5. The basket can not be stacked properly. The wooden and plastic crates are stable due to the larger floor size (600 × 400 mm) and to the height per crate (only five crates for a height of 1.50 meter). The carton box can reasonably be stacked.


FIG. 1. CHECKLIST

Ad 6. The hold of an wooden vessel is at least 2 meters high and the package on the bottom should not collapse under the pressure of the stack. The rigid wooden and plastic crates will maintain their shape even with high stacking. The carton box will indent when not properly (corner on top of corner) stacked.

Ad 7. As long as the conditions in the hold of the vessels have not changed, there will be no need for ventilation of the crates and a relatively low priority has been given to this item. The best ventilation can be obtained by the plastic and wooden crate. Liners of palm leaves inside the basket prevent good ventilation. The telescopic carton boxes are often overfilled and consequently not properly closed with the result that the ventilation holes are not in line anymore.

Ad 8. Pallets are not yet used in the inter-island trade and every crate has to be picked up and put down several times before it reaches its destination. In order to prevent losses this item should have a very high importance. Both the wooden and plastic crate give a very good protection.

Ad 9. Baskets may have sharp edges, whereas plastic crates and carton boxes have smooth surfaces.

Ad 10. Not applicable. Liners are not yet in use in the inter-island trade.

Ad 11. Plastic crates are much easier to clean than wooden crates or baskets. Carton boxes are only used once.

Ad 12. Only the plastic stack-nest crate has no cover and pilferage of produce is possible.

Ad 13. A label is difficult to attach to a basket and easiest to attach to a carton box.

Ad 14. Logo and brand name can be printed in colour on a carton box.

Ad 15. Carton boxes are very suitable for presenting produce, whereas woven baskets are not suitable.

Ad 16. Depending on importing country. Some countries do no longer accept baskets.

Ad 17. Baskets and carton boxes have the lowest purchase cost.

Ad 18. The wooden and plastic crates can be used for several journeys resulting in a lower running cost of these packages per trip.

Ad 19. Carton boxes and plastic crates are not repairable. Only wooden crates can be repaired locally.

Ad 20. The same for all package types.

Ad 21. The freight costs in the Eastern Caribbean are high and a low cargo volume of empty crates is important. The basket uses the same volume on the return trip. Both the wooden and the plastic crates have a return freight volume of around 40 percent for the full crate. The carton box is only a single trip package and has no return freight.

Ad 22. Only plastic crates can not be manufactured locally.

Ad 23. Baskets can not be stacked properly and are difficult to transport.

Ad 24. Carton boxes are meant for one single trip and do not have to be returned, whereas crates are not always returned to their owners.

CHECKLIST







CONTAINING

1. Suitable capacity for the range of fruits, vegetables and rootcrops







2. Easily handled by one person







3. Standard design







4. Palletization







PROTECTING

5. Stable when stacked







6. Consistent dimension, resist the pressure when stacked







7. Good ventilation







8. Protection during handling, transport and marketing







9. Smooth surface material, no sharp edges







10. Liners available







11. Easy to clean







12. Pilfer proof/closed with cover







COMMUNICATING

13. Easy to attach label







14. Advertisement/Brandname on box







15. Presentation







16. Acceptable for customs control







COST-MISCELLANEOUS

17. Reasonable purchase cost







18. Durable/Deterioration







19. Repairable







20. Consistent supply guaranteed







21. Low cargo volume when empty







22. Local manufacturing possible







23. Transport/fitting or, pick-up or handcart







24. Loss of crates







TOTAL

100%

100%

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.