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close this bookBasic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentForeword
View the documentLinking Volume 1 and 2 of Basic Science and Health Education Teacher's Guide
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction to Book
View the documentCHAPTER 1. My Health and Other People's
View the documentCHAPTER 2. Caring for Our Bodies
View the documentCHAPTER 3. Causes of Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 4. Names and Sources of Food
View the documentCHAPTER 5. The Importance of Immunisation
View the documentCHAPTER 6. Cleaning Things We Use
View the documentCHAPTER 7. Family Relationships and Interactions
View the documentCHAPTER 8. The Six Immunisable Diseases
View the documentCHAPTER 9. Food Hygiene
View the documentCHAPTER 10. Helping Others to Keep Healthy
View the documentCHAPTER 11. Worms, Diarrhoea and Dehydration
View the documentCHAPTER 12. Safety and Accident Prevention
View the documentCHAPTER 13. Germs and Prevention of Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 14. Working together for Good Health
View the documentCHAPTER 15. Topic: Keeping Clean
View the documentCHAPTER 16. Malaria, Trachoma and Sleeping Sickness
View the documentCHAPTER 17. First Aid for Common Accidents
View the documentCHAPTER 18. Food Preservation and Contamination
View the documentCHAPTER 19. Injuries and Their Care
View the documentCHAPTER 20. Digestive System
View the documentCHAPTER 21. Nutrition, Health and Disease
View the documentCHAPTER 22. Worms

CHAPTER 2. Caring for Our Bodies

P1: TERM 2


By the end of this topic, pupils should be able to:

1. Tell why we wash our eyes, feet, skin, nose, teeth and ears.
2. Describe proper ways of caring for the above parts of the body.
3. Explain the dangers of not caring for the above parts.

Behavioural Changes

Pupils should:

· Demonstrate proper washing of face, feet, skin, nose, teeth, ears.
· Avoid putting things into nose, ears and eyes.

Main Ideas

· Keeping ourselves clean helps us to avoid disease.
· We must wash our bodies, everyday (or several times a day, if need be).
· We must brush our teeth in the morning, and evening to avoid tooth decay and bad smell.
· If things are put in the eyes, nose or ears, they may cause injuries.
· Looking at the sun directly can damage your eyes.

Notes for the Teacher

Dirt left on our bodies enables germs to live on it. Germs cause different diseases to our bodies. We need to keep our bodies clean by using clean water and soap.

If food is left in the teeth, germs will feed or live on it. These germs may cause tooth decay. Tooth decay causes toothache and bad smell. Brushing our teeth will stop germs from getting into our teeth and making our mouth smell bad. If you get toothache go to a dentist or health worker.

Things like dirt, beans, small stones, seeds etc. may get stuck in the nose or ear or eye or even vagina and anus and damage these parts. If by accident something gets stuck in one of these parts, seek the help of a health worker or the teacher. (see also the part on First Aid in this Book).

Care for eyes by washing them regularly and playing carefully, and avoiding dust and looking directly at the sun. The rays of the sun may damage your eyes and make you blind.


1. Let older children demonstrate how to wash their young friends. Encourage older children to wash their young brothers and sisters at home. Encourage them to wash as shown at home.

After washing, pupils should wash the basins and store them clean.

2. Brushing Teeth

(a) The teacher should make local tooth brushes for P1 children from safe pieces of shrub in the locality e.g. from mid veins of young palm leaves.

(b) Or before this lesson, teacher should ask each child to bring a tooth brush either modern or locally made by her/his parents.

(c) Let children bring good clean ash from home or some modern toothpaste (not sand).

(d) Children can practise the correctway of brushing teeth and correct each other in pairs.

Local Tooth Brushes
Brush teeth up and down, away from the gums.

Brush tooth after tooth to make sure all have been cleaned.

Rinse the mouth and wash the tooth brush after brushing.

Make sure all the teeth have been cleaned.

Avoid mixing brushes, sharing brushes, or using same charcoal because this may spread diseases.

(i) Tell a story about what happened to a child who did not brush his teeth.

3. Compose simple ryhmes or songs about clean bodies and teeth e.g. wash your body everyday three times using water and soap. Brush your teeth everyday etc.


Following instructions.
Manipulative skills.


Basins, local or bought tooth brush, ash, toothpaste (bought), charcoal, soap sponge, clean water.


1. Teacher should inspect children on health parades every morning to check on the cleanliness of pupils parts of the body and teeth.

2. Children can tell why they should wash their bodies and brush their teeth and when.

3. Let children identify the proper twigs to make tooth brushes from.


Teacher visits some pupils' homes to observe cleanliness of family members. Discuss with parents.


What have you learnt from this chapter?

1. Explain why we wash our eyes, feet, skin, teeth and ears.
2. What happens when these parts of the body are not properly cared for?
3. Explain how teeth should be cleaned.

Older children could be in charge of young children.

Demonstrate and explain proper ways of cleaning teeth.

Demonstrate proper ways of cleaning teeth and explain why we need to clean them.