|Basic Science and Health Education for Primary Schools Uganda (UNICEF, 1992, 162 p.)|
UNIT 15 ACCIDENTS AND FIRST AID
P1 TERM 2
By the end of this topic, children should be able to:
1. Describe what an accident is.
· Know and observe rules of crossing and walking on roads.
· Avoid situations that are likely to cause accidents.
· An accident is a sudden happening that causes harm to the body suddenly and unexpectedly.
· Accidents can take place any where, but they commonly occur at home, on the way to school, at school or at the well/river/lake.
· Accidents can be caused by fire, hot water, broken bottles, vehicles and bicycles, and drinking poison.
· All accidents can be prevented.
· Bites and stings (from some animals and insects) are harmful and can be prevented.
· First Aid is the first help given to a person who is injured before taking them to a health centre or hospital.
Notes for the Teacher
WHAT IS AN ACCIDENT ?
An accident is something harmful and takes place suddenly and unexpectedly. Accidents may result in simple injuries to the body like bruises and cuts. But they may also result in major complications like broken bones with heavy bleeding, failure to breathe, unconsciousness, or even death.
People who have been involved in accidents need assistance. Such assistance is called First Aid. It is the first help given to a person to reduce pain, assist recovery or save life.
Accidents at Home and School
a) Falling into fire (fireplace or stove) will cause burns.
b) Spilling hot liquids and food (saucepan being pulled over) causes scalds.
c) Touching electric wires causes shock, breathing stops, heart stops, - death
d) Sharp instruments cause cuts
e) Swallowing poison drugs, Kerosene, rat poison etc. can cause death
f) Falling from trees can cause broken bones and cuts.
g) Dogs can carry rabies.
h) Stings can cause pain.
Accidents on the roads.
1. Motor vehicles can cause serious injury and death.
2. Bicycles can cause broken bones, cuts, and death.
Accidents at the well river/lake.
1. Falling in can cause drawning and death.
1. AT HOME
Keep away from fires.
Keep cooking pots and hot foods away from children.
Keep away from loose electric wires and plugs.
Keep away from electrical wires, plugs, sockets or switches when you are wet. Electricity can be conducted through water.
Use knives with great care.
Make sure that broken bottles are cleared from where people walk or play.
Put empty bottles in a safe place.
Only take medicines when given by an adult.
Climbing trees are very dangerous. Keep away from dogs.
Play away from long grass to avoid snakes.
Avoid bees or other stinging insects.
2. ON THE ROAD
Look before you cross the road.
Play away from the road.
Take care when riding a bicycle.
3. AT THE WELL
Play away from wells and ponds/rivers/lakes.
Take care when drawing water.
SOME ACTIVITIES FOR PUPILS:
a) Show pictures to pupils for them to identify different types of accidents.
b) Visit homes, school compounds, roads, and wells to identify places where accidents can take place. Let children explain or show how to prevent accidents at these places.
c) Let children draw a map of their compound and show places where accidents can occur.
d) Show pictures of animals and insects so that children identify those that bite and those that sting. The teacher can also show dead insects that sting.
e) Tell short stories and sing songs about accidents and First Aid.
SKILLS TO DEVELOP:
Interpretation of pictures
Pictures showing accidents e.g. at home, on the road, etc.
Pictures of animals and insects which bite and sting.
Stories and songs about accidents and first aid.
Give children a picture quiz on accident sites and animals that bite and sting.
Which place could accidents happen?
Which animal bites or stings?
1. Form School Health Committees. Choose health leaders to organise making the classroom and school safe.
2. Children should report accidents that they have seen.
3. Organise health parades to identify children with bruises, burns and cuts.
4. Children should report where there are biting or stinging creatures.
(What have you learned from this chapter?)
1. Define First Aid.
2. List 9 ways of preventing accidents at home.
3. Give 3 rules for safety on the road.
4. List 2 ways of keeping safe at the well/river/lake.