|Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas (National Museum of Kenya, 1994, 762 p.)|
Leaves simple, exstipulate, often needle-like. Flowers regular, bisexual; corolla with tube and lobes. Anthers opening by pores. Fruit a capsule.
1. Leaves needle-like, circa 1 mm wide 2. Erica
* Leaves 1.5-4 cm wide 1. Agauria
Leaves alternate or subopposite. Flowers with very small lobes and an almost urceolate tube. Fruit with a persistent calyx and style.
Agauria salicifolia (Lam.) Oliv.
Shrub or tree, 1-18m, evergreen; bark very rough and fissured, with vertical corky ridges. Leaves leathery, shiny, elliptical, base cuneate or rounded, apex rounded and mucronate or slightly acuminate, 3-7 by 1.5-4cm, glabrous (except sometimes the midrib); yellowish to pale whitish beneath. Flowers yellowish or pink, flushed crimson at base, in many-flowered axillary racemes to 12cm long; corolla 6-8mm long. Fruit reddish brown, globose, 4-5mm.
K1234567; (1250-) 2100-3300m; II, IV-V, VII, IX-XII
Forest edge or secondary forest, high-altitude bush-land.
Muthengeta, Muthikita, Muthigetu (KIK), Tangotuet (KIP), Olbebe, Ol-Ogomati (MAA), Ortet (NDO), Artet, Chepkirikorok (SEB), Modi, Mododi (TAI). Leaves poisonous to cattle. A bark infusion is used by the Maasai to aid digestion.
2. ERICA (including PHILIPPIA)
Leaves needle-like, in whorls of 3, with reflexed margins beset with glandular teeth. Flowers bell-shaped, clustered on small lateral branches. Fruit a capsule, contained within the persistent calyx and corolla.
1. Flowers 4-merous 2
* Flowers 3-merous 2. E. excelsa
2. Flowers with a bract halfway down the pedicel 1. E. arborea
* Flower with a bract at calyx-level 3
3. Leaves appressed; corolla 2-3 mm long 4. E. trimera
* Leaves ascending, not appressed; corolla 1-1.5 mm long 3. E. mannii
Note: Erica (Philippia) benguelensis does not occur in Kenya; its inclusion in KTS was based on a wrong identification.
1. Erica arborea L.
Shrub or tree, 0.5-7.5 m with ascending branches. Leaves ascending, 2-6.5 by circa 1 mm. Flowers white or pink, 1.5-3mm long. Fruit red, to 3 mm long.
K123456; (1000-)2100-4500 m; I-IV, VI-XII (I, VIII-X)
In rocky high-altitude bushland; co-dominant in a zone above the Hagenia belt on high mountains.
Giant Heath (STAND), Muthithinda (KIK), Kaibeyuwunyot, Kwaipeyot (KIP), Olkibejus (MAA), Kwaloliong (MAR), Sisinuet (NAN).
2. Erica excelsa (Alm & Fries) Beentje
(Philippia excelsa Alm & Fries)
Shrub or tree 0.6-9 m; bark grey or brown, longitudinally fissured. Leaves 2-5.5 by circa 1 mm. Flowers white or pink; corolla 1.5-2 mm long. Fruit to 2 mm long
K346; (1200-) 2500-3650 m; II-III, V-VIII, XI-XII *
Boggy moorland or high-altitude grassland, heath zone.
Muthithinda (KIK), Kapsigaga (SEB).
3. Erica mannii (Hook. f.) Beentje
ssp. usambarensis (Alm & Fries) Beentje
[Philippia mannii (Hook. f.) Alm & Fries ssp. usambarensis (Alm & Fries) Ross, Philippia pallidiflora Engl. ssp. usambarensis]
Shrub or tree 1-4m. Leaves ascending, 2.5-5 by circa 1mm. Flowers brown-red, in dense umbels; corolla 1-1.5 mm long. Fruit velvety, mauve, to 1.5 mm long.
K467; (750-) 1350-2200 m; II-IV, VI-XI
Bushland on rocky or eroded hillslopes.
4. Erica trimera (Engl.) Beentje
(Philippia trimera Engl.)
Shrub 0.5-3 m. Leaves appressed, 2-6.5 by 0.5-1.4 mm. Flowers white, yellow or pink, in dense umbels; corolla 2-3 mm long. Fruit to 3 mm long.
K45; 3000-4500 m; I-V, VII-X, XII *
Muthithinda (KIK), Kapsigaga (SEB).
Two subspecies have been described for Kenya:
- ssp. keniensis (S. Moore) Beentje [ssp. keniensis (S. Moore) Hedb.] from Mt. Kenya, with leaves 0.8-1.4 mm wide: RARE
- ssp. elgonensis (Mildbr.) Beentje [ssp. elgonensis (Mildbr.) Ross] from Mt. Elgon, with leaves 0.5-0.7 mm wide: RARE