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close this bookKenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas (National Museum of Kenya, 1994, 762 p.)
close this folderSPERMATOPHYTA DICOTYLEDONES
View the documentAnnonaceae - Soursop family
View the documentMonimiaceae - Lemonwood family
View the documentLauraceae - Avocado family
View the documentHernandiaceae
View the documentRanunculaceae - Buttercup family
View the documentBerberidaceae - Berberis family
View the documentMenispermaceae - Curare family
View the documentAristolochiaceae
View the documentPiperaceae - Pepper family
View the documentTurneraceae
View the documentCapparaceae (Capparidaceae) - Caper family
View the documentMoringaceae - Moringa family
View the documentViolaceae - Violet family
View the documentPolygalaceae
View the documentCrassulaceae
View the documentPortulacaceae
View the documentPolygonaceae - Sorrel family
View the documentPhytolaccaceae
View the documentChenopodiaceae
View the documentAmaranthaceae
View the documentBalsaminaceae - Balsam family
View the documentLythraceae - Henna family
View the documentSonneratiaceae
View the documentOliniaceae
View the documentOnagraceae - Fuchsia family
View the documentThymelaeaceae
View the documentNyctaginaceae - Bougainvillea family
View the documentProteaceae - Protea family
View the documentDilleniaceae
View the documentPittosporaceae
View the documentFlacourtiaceae (incl. Samydaceae) - Kei-apple family
View the documentCanellaceae - Cinnamon family
View the documentTamariceae - Tamarisk family
View the documentPassifloraceae - Passionflower family
View the documentCucurbitaceae - Cucumber family
View the documentBegoniaceae - Begonia family
View the documentCaricaceae - Papaya family
View the documentOchnaceae - Ochna family
View the documentAncistrocladaceae
View the documentMyrtaceae - Eucalypt/clove family
View the documentLecythidaceae
View the documentMelastomataceae
View the documentCombretaceae - Combretum family
View the documentRhizophoraceae - Mangrove family
View the documentGuttiferae (including Hypericaceae) - Garcinia family
View the documentTiliaceae - Jute family
View the documentSterculiaceae - Cola family
View the documentBombacaceae - Baobab family
View the documentMalvaceae - Cotton family
View the documentMalphigiaceae
View the documentEyrthroxylaceae - Coca family
View the documentLinaceae - Flax family
View the documentEuphorbiaceae - Rubber, Cassava, Castor oil family
View the documentMontiniaceae
View the documentRosaceae - Rose family
View the documentChrysobalanceae
View the documentDichapetalaceae (including Chailletiaceae)
View the documentCaesalpiniaceae - Cassia family
View the documentMimosaceae - Mimosa family
View the documentPapilionaceae - Pea family
View the documentHamamelidiceae
View the documentBuxaceae - Box family
View the documentSalicaceae -Willow family
View the documentMyricaceae
View the documentCasuarinaceae - Casuarina family
View the documentUlmaceae
View the documentMoraceae - Fig family
View the documentUrticaceae - Stinging nettle family
View the documentAquifoliaceae - Holly family
View the documentCelastraceae - Miraa family
View the documentIcacinaceae
View the documentSalvadoraceae - Mswaki family
View the documentOlacaceae - Sour plum family
View the documentOpiliaceae
View the documentLoranthaceae - Mistletoe family
View the documentSantalaceae - Sandalwood family
View the documentRhamnaceae - Buffalo thorn family
View the documentVitaceae - Grapevine family
View the documentRutaceae - Citrus family
View the documentSimaroubaceae
View the documentBalanitaceae - Desert date family
View the documentBurseraceae - Myrrh family
View the documentMeliaceae - Mahogany family
View the documentSapindaceae - Mkaapwani family
View the documentMelianthaceae
View the documentAnacardiaceae - Mango family
View the documentConnaraceae
View the documentCornaceae - Dogwood family
View the documentAlangiaceae
View the documentAraliaceae - Mutati family
View the documentUmbelliferae - Carrot family
View the documentEricaceae - Heather family
View the documentEbenaceae - Ebony family
View the documentSapotaceae - Shea butter family
View the documentMyrsinaceae - Rapanea family
View the documentLoganiaceae - Strychnos family
View the documentOleaceae - Olive family
View the documentApocynaceae - Lmuria family
View the documentAsclepiadaceae - Milkweed family
View the documentRubiaceae - Coffee family
View the documentCompositae - Sunflower family
View the documentLobeliaceae
View the documentGoodeniaceae
View the documentBoraginaceae - Cordia family
View the documentSolanaceae - Potato family
View the documentConvolvulaceae - Sweet potato family
View the documentScrophulariaceae - Witchweed family
View the documentBignoniaceae - Flame tree family
View the documentPedaliaceae - Sesame family
View the documentAcanthaceae - Sarim family
View the documentVerbenaceae - Teak family
View the documentCyclocheilaceae
View the documentLabiatae/Lamiaceae - Mint, basil family

Ericaceae - Heather family

Leaves simple, exstipulate, often needle-like. Flowers regular, bisexual; corolla with tube and lobes. Anthers opening by pores. Fruit a capsule.

1. Leaves needle-like, circa 1 mm wide 2. Erica

* Leaves 1.5-4 cm wide 1. Agauria

1. AGAURIA

Leaves alternate or subopposite. Flowers with very small lobes and an almost urceolate tube. Fruit with a persistent calyx and style.

Agauria salicifolia (Lam.) Oliv.

Shrub or tree, 1-18m, evergreen; bark very rough and fissured, with vertical corky ridges. Leaves leathery, shiny, elliptical, base cuneate or rounded, apex rounded and mucronate or slightly acuminate, 3-7 by 1.5-4cm, glabrous (except sometimes the midrib); yellowish to pale whitish beneath. Flowers yellowish or pink, flushed crimson at base, in many-flowered axillary racemes to 12cm long; corolla 6-8mm long. Fruit reddish brown, globose, 4-5mm.

K1234567; (1250-) 2100-3300m; II, IV-V, VII, IX-XII

Forest edge or secondary forest, high-altitude bush-land.

Muthengeta, Muthikita, Muthigetu (KIK), Tangotuet (KIP), Olbebe, Ol-Ogomati (MAA), Ortet (NDO), Artet, Chepkirikorok (SEB), Modi, Mododi (TAI). Leaves poisonous to cattle. A bark infusion is used by the Maasai to aid digestion.


Agauria salicifolia


Agauria salicifolia

2. ERICA (including PHILIPPIA)

Leaves needle-like, in whorls of 3, with reflexed margins beset with glandular teeth. Flowers bell-shaped, clustered on small lateral branches. Fruit a capsule, contained within the persistent calyx and corolla.

1. Flowers 4-merous 2

* Flowers 3-merous 2. E. excelsa

2. Flowers with a bract halfway down the pedicel 1. E. arborea

* Flower with a bract at calyx-level 3

3. Leaves appressed; corolla 2-3 mm long 4. E. trimera

* Leaves ascending, not appressed; corolla 1-1.5 mm long 3. E. mannii

Note: Erica (Philippia) benguelensis does not occur in Kenya; its inclusion in KTS was based on a wrong identification.

1. Erica arborea L.

Shrub or tree, 0.5-7.5 m with ascending branches. Leaves ascending, 2-6.5 by circa 1 mm. Flowers white or pink, 1.5-3mm long. Fruit red, to 3 mm long.

K123456; (1000-)2100-4500 m; I-IV, VI-XII (I, VIII-X)

In rocky high-altitude bushland; co-dominant in a zone above the Hagenia belt on high mountains.

Giant Heath (STAND), Muthithinda (KIK), Kaibeyuwunyot, Kwaipeyot (KIP), Olkibejus (MAA), Kwaloliong (MAR), Sisinuet (NAN).


Erica arborea


Erica arborea

2. Erica excelsa (Alm & Fries) Beentje

(Philippia excelsa Alm & Fries)

Shrub or tree 0.6-9 m; bark grey or brown, longitudinally fissured. Leaves 2-5.5 by circa 1 mm. Flowers white or pink; corolla 1.5-2 mm long. Fruit to 2 mm long

K346; (1200-) 2500-3650 m; II-III, V-VIII, XI-XII *

Boggy moorland or high-altitude grassland, heath zone.

Muthithinda (KIK), Kapsigaga (SEB).


Erica excelsa

3. Erica mannii (Hook. f.) Beentje

ssp. usambarensis (Alm & Fries) Beentje

[Philippia mannii (Hook. f.) Alm & Fries ssp. usambarensis (Alm & Fries) Ross, Philippia pallidiflora Engl. ssp. usambarensis]

Shrub or tree 1-4m. Leaves ascending, 2.5-5 by circa 1mm. Flowers brown-red, in dense umbels; corolla 1-1.5 mm long. Fruit velvety, mauve, to 1.5 mm long.

K467; (750-) 1350-2200 m; II-IV, VI-XI

Bushland on rocky or eroded hillslopes.

Sumbusu (TAI).


Erica mannii

4. Erica trimera (Engl.) Beentje

(Philippia trimera Engl.)

Shrub 0.5-3 m. Leaves appressed, 2-6.5 by 0.5-1.4 mm. Flowers white, yellow or pink, in dense umbels; corolla 2-3 mm long. Fruit to 3 mm long.

K45; 3000-4500 m; I-V, VII-X, XII *

Heath zone.

Muthithinda (KIK), Kapsigaga (SEB).

Two subspecies have been described for Kenya:

- ssp. keniensis (S. Moore) Beentje [ssp. keniensis (S. Moore) Hedb.] from Mt. Kenya, with leaves 0.8-1.4 mm wide: RARE

- ssp. elgonensis (Mildbr.) Beentje [ssp. elgonensis (Mildbr.) Ross] from Mt. Elgon, with leaves 0.5-0.7 mm wide: RARE