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close this bookSPORE Bulletin of the CTA No. 65 - September-October 1996 (CTA Spore, 1996, 16 p.)
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The right tree for the job

Many nitrogen-fixing tree species are tolerant of acid soils. Planted in agroforestry systems, they provide a low-input technology that help farmers overcome limitations to plant growth caused by lack of nitrogen. Only recently have researchers begun to evaluate different nitrogen fixing species for agroforestry systems on acid soils.

Nitrogen fixing trees for acid soils is a manual produced by the participants who amended a conference of the same title and whose objective it was to produce a practical field guide for selecting, evaluating and growing nitrogen fixing trees on acid soils.

Nitrogen fixing trees for acid soils edited by Mark Powells 1996 110pp Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, Win rock International 3 8 Winrock Drive, Morrilton, Arkansas 72110 9537, USA

Researchers and farmers have different perspectives when choosing tree species that will give the greatest benefit. These perspectives have to be merged when setting priorities for deciding on which species are to be researched for genetic improvement. The poor knowledge base on multipurpose trees makes estimation of the possible effects on research efforts more difficult to assess than for agricultural commodities. The large number of possible species, and the paucity of information on these species, necessitated the design of a priority-setting process radically different from traditional scoring or economic surplus approaches.

Choosing the right trees setting priorities for multipurpose tree improvement is a research report in which the procedures for setting these innovative priorities for research are documented: they are structured, objective and involve both researchers and farmers. The proceedures were tested in the humid lowlands of West Africa.

Choosing the right trees ISNAR
Research Report 8 by S Franzel,
H Jaenicke and W Janssen 1996
87pp ISBN 92 9118 0254
ISSN 1021 4429

ISNAR, PO Box 93375, 2509 AJ

CABI publications

A world dictionary of livestock breeds

This dictionary covers cattle, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys and buffalo. It includes all names which have been applied to interbreeding groups of these species, whether they are called breeds, sub-breeds, types, varieties, strains or lines. The region or country of origin of each group is given and this is followed by a very brief description of the 'breed' in terms of products colour, and major morphological features. This updated (fourth) edition includes approximately 9000 entries, many of which are new.

A world dictionary, of livestock breeds: types and varieties 4th edition by I L Mason, 1996, 288pp Hbk price UKL40 00 ISBN 0 85199 102 5

Dictionary of natural resource management

The field of natural resource management is expanding, attracting individuals and ideas from a wide array of disciplines. For effective communication to take place, it is increasingly important for everyone involved to be familiar with the exact meanings being attached to the terms in use. This dictionary has been compiled to address this need by providing a single source of definitions about natural resource management terms. It has more than 6,000 entries, many of them illustrated, and a detailed set of appendices covering the classification of organisms, geological time-scales and conversion factors, making it a comprehensive reference work.

Dictionary of natural resource management by Julian and Katherine Dunster
1996 368pp Hbk price UKL4750 ISBN 0 85199 148 3

Governments, farmers and seeds in a changing Africa

This book presents the results of the first study to investigate the African seed sector in detail, using case study material from Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. It provides a new conceptual approach to analysing structural and organizational issues in the seed sector. The author assesses the likely impact on the seed sector of the two trends of structural adjustment and greater emphasis on community participation. The book will be of interest to economists, social scientists and policy-makers concerned with agriculture and development.

Governments, farmers and seeds in a changing Africa by Elizabeth Cromwell 1996, 176pp price UKL30 00 ISBN 0 85198 9764

Tree-crop interactions: a physiological approach

The potential role and benefits of agroforestry in sustainable agriculture have been recognized for some time. However, until recently there has been only a limited amount of quantitative physiological evidence to support this. This book breaks new ground in showing how the principles of crop physiology can be applied to the understanding of tree-crop interactions.

Tree-crop interactions: a physiological approach by Chin K Ong and P A Huxley 1996 416pp price UKL25 00 ISBN 0 85198 987 X CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 ODE, UK

Limited numbers of the following CABI titles are available from CTA: Food security and food inventories in developing countries by P Berck and D Bigman Pest management a directory of information sources by CJ Hamilton

CD-ROM for African research needs

CD-ROM publishing is evolving so fast that there is no way that African users can keep pace with the new developments. As a result, African universities are hard-pressed to make appropriate decisions concerning the best allocation of scarce resources, which means that many of them are subscribing to databases that are inappropriate to their needs. These databases can be very expensive, taking the major share of a library's budget and leaving it little room to acquire other types of materials. Moreover, although database acquisition might be underwritten by donor funding at the outset, grants inevitably expire, leaving librarians with the dilemma of finding money to pay for subscription renewals - thus calling into question the long-term sustainability of CD-ROM utilization at their institutions.

To meet these needs, the AAAS Sub-Saharan Africa Program decided to embark on an initiative to evaluate CD-ROM databases in the sciences and social sciences for their relevance to African teaching and research needs. The assessments were carried out in seven universities, two of which were in South Africa.

An evaluation workshop was organized to assess the collected data. This book contains abridged versions of reports presented at the workshop and, although the book is about CDROM, it is not devoted to CDROM entirely. There are chapters on document delivery, current awareness services and on-line searching.

CD-ROM for African research needs: guidelines for selecting databases edited by Lisbeth Levy 1996 157pp

Sub Saharan Africa Program, American Association for Advancement of Science, 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Washington, D C 20005, USA

Using phosphine as an effective commodity fumigant

The use of phosphine gas to disinfest stored commodities is widespread. This booklet describes the uses of phosphine and simple strategies which may be utilized to prevent the occurrence of insect resistance to this fumigant. The manual will be of special interest to workers in the field of storage entomology and those involved in the control of pests of durable commodities in both tropical and temperate climates.

Using phosphine as an effective
commodity fumigant by R W D Taylor
and I Gudrups 1996
14pp UKL5.00 ISBN 0 85954 437 0
NRI, Central Avenue, Chatham
Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK

Fish and food security

Although fish are often excluded from projections of future food supply, they are a very important source of food and fishing offers a livelihood for large numbers of people in developing countries. But overexploitation and other pressures on fish stocks in many of the world's natural fisheries could threaten food security in much of the developing world. The farming of aquatic resources is becoming increasingly important, but it must be intensified significantly and sustainably.

In a discussion paper, The transition in the contribution of living aquatic resources to food security, the author examines the current state and likely future condition of the world's fish and other living aquatic resources as sources of food. She suggests the role that research can play in helping to develop sustainable management practices for the world's fisheries.

The transition in the contribution of living aquatic resources to food security by Meryl Williams 1996 41pp

International Food Policy Research
Institute, 1200 Seventeenth Street
N. W Washington,
D C 20026-3006 USA


· The farming systems approach to development and appropriate technology generation

The farming systems approach to development (FSD) has two interrelated thrusts. One is to develop an understanding of the farmhousehold, the environment in which it operates, and the constraints it faces, together with identifying and testing potential solutions to those constraints. The second thrust involves the dissemination of the most promising solutions to other farming households facing similar problems. This manual primarily concentrates on procedures useful to FSD personnel in addressing the first of these thrusts, particularly with respect to designing and developing relevant improved technologies.

The farming systems approach to development and appropriate technology generation by D Norman, F Worman, J Siebert and E Modiakgotla 1995 229pp ISBN 92 5 103644 6

· Harvesting of textile animal fibres

This bulletin provides general background information on the main textile-producing animals and detailed guidance on the harvesting techniques including preparation for sale. By following these guidelines growers will maximize the monetary value of their fibre and its value to the textile industry. A glossary of terms used both in the bulletin and by the animal fibre industry is given at the end of the manual.

Harvesting of textile animal fibres FAO agricultural services bulletin 122 by O J Petrie 1995 101pp ISBN 92 5 103759 0

· Fishing Boat construction 3: building a ferrocement fishing boat

This publication is intended to provide the reader with a sound basic knowledge of ferrocement and its potential and limitations in boat-building. It is assumed that readers of this document are already familiar with the construction of small fishing boats. The publication covers all stages of building a small ferrocement fishing craft, from design and lofting requirements and techniques, to repairs and the preparation and painting of a ferrocement hull. The annex contains costings and drawings a 12.8 metre trawler built in India with FAO technical assistance. Fishing boat construction 3: FAO fisheries technical paper 354 by Richard Riley and Jeremy Turner 1995 149pp ISBN 92 5 103764 7

· Hides and skins for the tanning industry

Hides and skins are among the world's most valuable agricultural commodities. Marketing depends strongly on quality, which in turn depends upon the treatment of the animal during its working life and the way in which the skin is removed, treated and stored prior to tanning. This factual and easy-tounderstand text proceeds from animal care through to slaughtering, skin removal and processing and on to storage and sale. The bulletin provides guidance to enable farmers, extensionists, butchers and traders to maximize commercial value.

Hides and skins for the tanning industry FAO agricultural services bulletin
123 by Ian Leach 1995 153pp ISBN 92 5 103746 9
Publications Division, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome,