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close this bookLost Crops of Africa: Volume 1 - Grains (BOSTID, 1996, 372 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNotice
View the documentPanel
View the documentStaff
View the documentContributors
View the documentPreface
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the document1. African Rice
View the document2. Finger Millet
View the document3. Fonio (Acha)
View the document4. Pearl Millet
View the document5. Pearl Millet: Subsistence Types
View the document6. Pearl Millet: Commercial Types
View the document7. Sorghum
View the document8. Sorghum: Subsistence Types
View the document9. Sorghum: Commercial Types
View the document10. Sorghum: Specialty Types
View the document11. Sorghum: Fuel and Utility Types
View the document12. TEF
View the document13. Other Cultivated Grains
View the document14. Wild Grains
View the documentAppendix A
View the documentAppendix B
View the documentAppendix C
View the documentAppendix D
View the documentAppendix E
View the documentAppendix F
View the documentAppendix G
View the documentAppendix H
View the documentAppendix I
View the documentThe BOSTID Innovation Program

Appendix H

Note on Nutritional Charts

In the earlier chapters we have included tables of nutritional information, as well as charts that show how this information compares with that of a standard cereal such as maize or rice. They appear on the following pages.

Crop

Page



African rice

27

finger millet

44, 45

fonio

64

pearl millet

86, 87

sorghum

134, 135

tef

222, 223

kram-kram

263

shame millet

268

Egyptian grass

269

wadi rice

270

These tables and charts should be taken only as rough indications of the lost crop's merits, not the definitive word. Some species in this book are so neglected that their nutritional components have been reported merely once or twice. It is thus probable that the figures we have used are not representative of average samples, let alone especially nutritious forms. Moreover, natural variation can occur in the nutritional content of grain from any particular species as a result of nongenetic factors such as climate and the availability of nutrients in the soil. It could be, therefore, that even better types will be discovered and developed.

The bar graphs provide what we think is a simple, but visually powerful, representation of the relative nutritional merits of two foods. With them nutritional figures between two foods (or between a food and a recommended daily allowance) can be compared almost instantly. This technique, in which the relative merits can be seen at a glance, was devised specifically for this project, but comparable approaches could be employed equally well in Africa.

The maize and rice values against which the African grains are compared in the bar graphs are taken from U.S. Department of Agriculture tables. The actual figures (converted to a dry-weight basis) are given below.

Component

Maize

Rice

Food energy (Kc)

408

406

Protein (g)

10.5

8.1

Carbohydrate (g)

83

90

Fat (g)

5.3

0.7

Fiber (g)

3.2

0.3

Ash (g)

1.3

0.7

Thiamin (mg)

0.43

0.08

Riboflavin (mg)

0.22

0.06

Niacin (mg)

4.1

1.8

Vitamin B6 (mg)

0.58

0.02

Folate (mg)

0.0

9.1

Pantothenic acid (mg)

0.47

1.15

Calcium (mg)

8

32

Copper (mg)

0.35

0.25

Iron (mg)

3.0

0.9

Magnesium (mg)

142

130

Manganese (mg)

0.55

1.1

Phosphorus (mg)

234

130

Potassium (mg)

320

130

Sodium (mg)

39

6

Zinc (mg)

2.5

1.2

In each of the essential-amino-acid bar graphs, the figures were compared on the basis of the amounts occurring in the protein of each grain (that is, grams per 100 grams of protein). In the other bar graphs, all nutrients were compared on a dry-weight basis so as to eliminate the distortions of different (and varying) amounts of moisture. Digestibility and other metabolic factors were not factored into the calculations. For vitamin A, the values for Retinol Equivalents were derived using standard formulas to convert literature figures given for carotenoids, 13-carotene, or International Units.

Amino Acid

Maize

Rice

Cystine

1.8

2.0

Isoleucine

3.6

4.3

Leucine

12.3

8.3

Lysine

2.8

3.6

Methionine

2.1

2.4

Phenylalanine

4.9

5.3

Threonine

3.8

3.6

Tryptophan

0.7

1.2

Tyrosine

4.1

3.3

Valine

5.1

6.1

Total

41.1

38.1

Grams per 100 g protein.

In most of the charts in the chapters we have compared the native grains in their whole-grain form with whole-grain rice and maize. A more realistic comparison might have been against polished rice and maize meal (in which the germ has been removed). This is the form in which rice and maize are normally consumed, whereas the native grains - pearl millet, fonio, finger millet, tef, and (in most cases at least) sorghum - are eaten as whole grains. Comparing nutritive values for the forms in which each is actually eaten creates an even more graphic picture of the nutritional superiority of the native grains.