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close this bookAfrican Agriculture: The Critical Choices (UNU, 1990, 222 p.)
close this folder6. Nigeria and the Ivory Coast: Commercial and export crops since 1960
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentAgricultural production trends in both countries
View the documentIvory Coast: Development strategy and commercial and export agriculture
View the documentHow the state intervenes
View the documentNigeria: Commercial and export agriculture
View the documentConclusion


1) The commercial and export products of agricultural origin traditionally grown in Africa are for the most part as vital for the populations and industries of Africa as they were and continue to be for overseas countries' economies. Thus, they call for the same care and attention as might be granted food crops.

2) The Ivory Coast has proved that the possibilities for African agriculture are enormous and that agriculture is an adequately solid basic starting point for the economic development of African countries. The surpluses generated by agriculture alone have enabled the Ivory Coast today to have a relatively large industry, whose contribution to GNP reached 23% in 1982, and whose products represented 55% of total Ivorian exports in 1981-82. It is also principally due to agriculture that Ivorians today en joy the highest annual per capita income in the West African sub-region, including Nigeria.56

3) The origin and class position of the Ivory Coast's ruling group have played a determining role in the successes recorded by its export agriculture, but they are also responsible for the enhanced relations of dependency of the Ivory Coast on the industrialized world.

4) Since independence, the state has played the role of pioneer and motor in regard to agricultural production for commerce and export in the Ivory Coast, a role it alone was able to undertake.

5) In Nigeria, where British colonialism's system of indirect rule enabled pre-capitalist modes of production and pre-colonial administrative systems to survive and even enjoy a degree of autonomy while favouring the emergence of an embryonic urban bourgeoisie, independence did not bring to power a homogeneous ruling group such as that in the Ivory Coast in terms of class origins: perhaps as a result of this heterogeneity, clearly defined class position has been identified. One consequence of this is the contradiction between a Nigerian social formation described as capitalist, and its agriculture, almost wholly organized on the basis of a pre-capitalist mode of production.

6) The peasant basis of Nigerian agriculture had intrinsic limitations that prevented it taking up the challenges of a process of urbanization on the scale experienced by Nigeria since 1974. Limitations that must be taken into account when attempting to apportion responsibility for the current agricultural crisis.


1. Africa South of the Sahara, 1982-1983.

2. S. O. Olayide and Dupe Olatunbosun. Trends and Prospects of Nigeria's Agricultural Exports, NISER. Ibadan 1975, p. 12.

3. Marchés Tropicaux et Méditerranéens, 2013. 8 June 1984, p. 1429

4. Africa South of the Sahara 1981-1984, p. 441.

5. Olayide and Olatunbosun, op, cit.. p. 27.

6. Ibid.. pp. 18 and 28.

7. Ibid.. pp. 17-18.

8. Ibid., p. 29.

9. United Nations Demographic Yearbook. 1970.

10. Jacques Baulin. La politique intérieure d'Houphouët-Boigny, Eurafo-Press. Paris 1982, pp. 93-4.

11. G. A. Kouassigan. 'Propriété foncière et développement. Tendances générales et options négro-africaines', in Le Village Piégé. Presses Universitaires de France. Paris and Cahiers de l'IUED' Geneva 1978, pp. 303-6.

12. Baulin, op, cit.. pp. 94 and 151.

13. Samir Amin. Le Développement du Capitalisme en Côte d'lvoire. Editions de Minuit, Paris 1967, p. 40.

14. Claude Meillassoux. Anthropologie Economique des Gouro de Côte d'Ivoire, Mouton. Paris 1964, pp. 327-37.

15. Amin, op, cit.. p. 43.

16. Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire (Ediafric-La documentation africaine. Paris), 997. 28 March 1979, p. 19365.

17. Baulin, op, cit.. p. 87.

18. Africa Contemporary Record 1971-1972. Africa Research Ltd.. London, p. B596.

19. Baulin, op, cit.. p. 112.

20. Ibid, pp. 99 and 146.

21. Ibid.. pp. 149 and 154-5.

22. Le Président Houphouët-Boigny et la Nation Ivorienne, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines. Abidjan and Dakar 1975, pp.209 and 212; Baulin, op, cit.. pp, 149, 150.

23. Africa Contemporary Record, op, cit.. p. B596.

24. Paul-Henri Siriex, Félix Houphouët-Boigny, I'homme de la paix. Seghers, Paris and Nouvelles Editions Africaines. Dakar and Abidjan 1975, p. 238.

25. Baulin, op, cit.. p. 94.

26. Ibid., p. 152.

27. Le Président Houphouët-Boigny et la Nation Ivoirienne, op, cit.. p. 183.

28. Africa Contemporary Record, 1969-1970, p. B502.

29. Europe Outremer. 657-658. October-November 1984, pp. 36-7.

30. See Bulletin del 'Afrique Noire: 1006, 6 June 1979: and 1175, 17 March 1983.

31. Europe Outremer 657-658. October-November 1984.

32. Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire. 1175. 17 March 1983, pp. 6-7 and 5.

31. Amin, op cit.. pp. 73-4.

34. Africa South of the Sahara 1983-84, op, cit.

35. Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire: 1029, 19 December 1979, p. 19896: and 1183, 19 May 1983, p. 6.

36. Ibid.. 986, 10 January 1979, p. 19186: and 996. 21 March 1979, pp. 19346-7.

37. See: Europe Outremer, op, cit.. pp. 16-7: Bonnie K. Campbell. 'Inside the miracle. Cotton in the Ivory Coast', in The Politics of Agriculture in Tropical Africa. Sage Publications. London & New Delhi 1984, pp. 145-50; Mohamed S. Halfani and Jonathan Barker. 'Agribusiness and agrarian change', in The Politics of Agriculture in Tropical Africa, op, cit., p. 49: Siriex, op, cit., p. 235.

38. Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire: 986. 10 January 1979; and 1183. 19 May 1983.

39. Africa South of the Sahara 1983-1984.

40. Gouffern, op, cit., note at foot of p. 29.

41. Ibid., pp. 22-9.

42. Ibid., p. 29; Jean-François Médard, 'Jeunes et ainés en Côte d'lvoire. Le VII congrès du PDCI-RDA'. Politique Africaine I, 1, January 1981, p. 104.

43. Jeune Afrique: 1013, 4June 1980 .p.60 1048, 4 February 1981, p. 29; 1013, 4 June 1980, p. 60: end Africa Contemporary Record 1980-1981, pp. B515-B516.

44. Jeune Afrique: 1267.17 April 1985, pp.11-15; 1263,20 March 1985, pp.26-7.

45. Europe Outremer, op, cit., pp. 10-11.

46. Jeune Afrique: 1048, 4 February 1981, p. 29; 1013, 4 June 1980, pp. 58-62.

47. Europe Outremer op, cit.. p. 11.

48. Federal Republic of Nigeria Supplement to the Official Gazette Extraordinary vol. 65. 14.29 March 1978. Part A.

49. See: C. K. Laurent. Investment in Nigerian Tree Crops: Smallholder production. NISER. University of Ibadan 1968, pp. 2 and 11; Gray, op, cit.. pp. 202 and 209. Olayide and Olatunbosun, op, cit.. pp. 12-13, 19 and 39; Jude Ejeke Njoku, 'The Nigerian ground-nut marketing scheme: the role of licensed buying agents'. M,Sc, thesis. Ahmadu Bello University. June 1981.

50. Samir Amin. 'Le capitalisme et la rente foncière (la domination du capitalisme sur l'agriculture', in La Question paysanne e, le capitalisme. Editions Anthropos. Paris 1974, pp. 37-8.

51. Ibid., pp. 9-10.

52. Gray, op, cit.. p. 85.

53. Yahaya A. Abdullahi, 'Anatomy of Nigerian agricultural crisis', The Triumph. Vol. 1. No. 5. 5 October 1985, pp. 11-12.

54. Central Bank of Nigeria, Annual Report, 1974.

55. Federal Ministry of Agriculture. Lagos. Information Bulletin on Nigerian Agriculture, January 1984; Yahaya A. Abdullahi, op, cit.. p. 12.

56. World Bank. Towards Sustained Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington. DC. 1984, pp. 59 and 57: Bulletin de l'Afrique Noire, 1198, 6 October 1983, p. 6.