|Aid and Entrepreneurship in Tanzania (Dar Es Salaam University Press, 1993, 165 p.)|
The groundwork and the data collection behind this study was done by a research team with Kapote Mwakasungura, Montanus Milanzi, Alois Shayo and myself as members. I am grateful for their cooperation. My participation was made possible by a kind invitation from the Graduate School at the Institute of Development Management, IDM, to teach and work there from June to December, 1990. The project was financed by the Norwegian Social Science Research Council, the group on Social Science and the Committee on Environment and Development. NORAD provided funds, transport and all sorts of cooperation. Jan Stølen at IDM was of good help all through. The project personnel were generally helpful in exposing important materials and viewpoints. Some of the project leaders and advisors played a crucial role in making the data collection a reasonable success. Officials in NORAD's office in Dar es Salaam were mostly cooperative. It would go too far to mention them all here. We are thankful. We have appreciated support in NORAD and in the Foreign Affairs Ministry in Oslo (Rolf Ree, Bjørg Leite). My teaching at IDM was liberally supported by the Rotary Foundation. The Stølen family and Kristin's companionship made the six months stay in Tanzania very comfortable.
The Tanzanian authorities and government officials included in our investigation were all cooperative, although they were unwilling to fill in the questionnaires. In a sense all the data presented are theirs, and we hereby thank them all for making the data available for research. Also thanks for fine receptions at IDM, at Sao Hill, in Mbeya, in Tanga and in Dar es Salaam.
Many colleagues have offered comments on previous drafts. With their knowledge of Tanzanian state and politics, Alois Shayo, Montanus Milanzi and Severine Rugumamu (IDS, University of Dar es Salaam) provided very important suggestions. Josaphat Kanywanyi became a good friend and valuable teacher. After reading a draft Charles Tilly pointed to Douglass North's ideas on how innovative institutions depend on people with secure property rights, suggesting how the study of the Tanzanian case can be expanded. At Christian Michelsen's Institute Steinar Askvik, Alf Morten Jerve, Arne Tostensen and the late Jeannette Hartmann used their time to delve into the materials and assist in giving form to the story. My colleagues Audun Offerdal and Jan Jacobsen gave valuable comments. Einar Braathen, Francis Appiah, Anne Jorun Sæten, Kjersti Morvik and Kristin Olsen and the other members of the State Formation Seminar at the Department for Administration and Organization Theory (DAO) did the same. Their interest in the problems of how state organization and state action matters for which route development - or underdevelopment - takes is an invaluable inspiration to keep on investigating. Thanks also to the Students Association (Studentersamfunnet) in Bergen for the invitation to present an outline of the study at one of the Association's 'unpopular' evening meetings.
In October, 1991 a draft of the study was presented at an open workshop in Dar es Salaam. Many comments were given by Tanzanian colleagues from the projects and others interested in how international aid affects entrepreneurial mobilization within the public sector in Tanzania. The draft was presented at an internal staff meeting at NORAD-D, with the Norwegian Ambassador, Gunnar Garbo in attendance. His and all the NORAD staffs comments were appreciated. It made a rewriting easier.
While in Dar es Salaam The Swedish Voluntary Service made very good living and working conditions available. I am grateful to Kristin Olsson and Gunnar Carlquist and to other friends made in the SVS house.
The draft was discussed in NORAD-Oslo in December 1991 on the invitation of Frøydis Aarbakke. It was presented at a staff seminar at DAO and at a development seminar at Agder College in Kristiansand. Recently , many good and critical comments have come my way from several groups studying Tanzania at the NORAD school in Oslo.
I hope I have managed to make good use of the suggestions and comments received. Let it be said that the story of NORAD's contribution to entrepreneurial mobilization in the public sector in Tanzania is, of course, my story, my interpretation of the materials, the interviews, the informal talks and the impressions received in the project premises and in the many Tanzanian public offices. My colleagues may well agree with the story for they have in different ways inspired it, but they cannot be held responsible for either it or the mistakes I have made.
It is easy to lose sight of the continuous inputs into a study like this one from the Christian Michelsen's and the University of Bergen Libraries. They are not forgotten here. Thank you.
Lastly, my two sons Martin and Øyvind, have, with some bewilderment, supported the excursions to Tanzania and seemed reasonably satisfied when I returned to our place in Bergen.