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close this bookTechnical notes: Special Considerations for Programming in Unstable Situations (UNICEF, 2000, 490 p.)
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1. Protecting and Promoting Health
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 1: Assuring Basic Health Care Services
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 2: Immunization (Measles and other EPI Antigens)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 3: Diarrhoeal Disease Control
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 4: Containing Outbreaks of Cholera, Dysentery and Typhoid
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 5: Control of Acute Respiratory Infections
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 6: Essential Drugs and Supplies
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 7: Management, Control and Prevention of the Most Common Communicable Diseases
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 8: Protecting Pregnancy in Emergencies
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 9: Prevention and Treatment of STDs/HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 10: Health Monitoring and Surveillance
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2: Supporting Nutritional Needs
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 1: Therapy for Severe Malnutrition
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 2: Assessing Nutritional Status
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 3: Assessing Household Food Security
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 4: Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Policy, Strategy & Practice
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 5: Malnutrition, Nutrient Requirements and Nutrient Sources
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3: Ongoing Education
View the documentChapter 3 - Annex 1: Information Gathering and Needs Assessment
View the documentChapter 3 - Annex 2: Guidelines for Teacher Training
View the documentChapter 3 - Annex 3: Educational Kits (Edukits)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3 - Annex 4: Education for Peace and Conflict Resolution
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4: Children Separated from Families
View the documentChapter 4 - Annex 1: Identification Photographs in Family Tracing
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 5 - Internally Displaced Children and Women
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6: Anti-Personnel Landmines
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6 - Annex 1: Landmine/UXO Awareness: Curriculum ContentFootnote
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6 - Annex 2: Feasibility Study and Needs Assessment *
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 7: Protecting the Rights of the Child
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 7 - Annex 1: Evacuation of Children from Conflict Situations
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 8: Gender Issues
View the documentChapter 8 - Annex 1: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 18 December 1979 (extracts)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9: Early Childhood Development and Protection
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9 - Annex 1: Violence and Young Children: Behavioural Consequences
View the documentChapter 9 - Annex 2: Therapeutic Language: Talking with Distressed Children
View the documentChapter 9 - Annex 3: The Healing Role of Play and Art
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9 - Annex 4: Building Resilience: Implications for Programmes
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 10: Young People, with a Focus on AdolescentsFootnote 1
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 10 - Annex 1: Safe Places for Young People
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 11: Sexual Violence
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 12 - Child Combatants
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 13: Children in Detention
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 13 - Annex 1: Juvenile Justice
View the documentChapter 13 - Annex 2: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948 (extracts)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 14: Protecting Psychosocial Development
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 14 - Annex 1: Copyright of Original Art/Writings Created by Children
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 15: The Impact of Sanctions
View the documentChapter 15 - Annex 1: Reducing the Negative Humanitarian Impact of Sanctions
View the documentChapter 16: Human Rights SITAN
View the documentChapter 16 - Annex 1: Institutionalising Human Rights
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17: Managing Water Resources
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 1: Distribution and Storage of Water
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 2: Water Sources (Exploitation and Rehabilitation)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 3: Water Quality and Treatment
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 4: Water Pumps, Pipes and Fittings
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 5: Water and Sanitation in Urban Areas
View the documentChapter 17 - Annex 6: Water Assessment Checklistnote
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 18: Supporting Shelter and Domestic Needs
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19: Developing Sanitation Systems & Approaches
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 1: Types of Latrine
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 2: Disposing of Excreta
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 3: Environmental Sanitation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 4: Vector Control (Control of disease-carrying insects and rodents)
View the documentCharter of the United Nations

Chapter 3 - Annex 2: Guidelines for Teacher Training

The existing resources will very much determine the extent to which teacher training is necessary and the types of support that will be needed to plan for. These guidelines assume a very basic level of human and infrastructure resources. They can be adapted, or the initial steps completely ignored, in situations where the resource base is fairly strong.

Major steps:

· Determine if those who are willing to serve as teachers have other time-consuming responsibilities as well. If so, consider how to build flexible education schedules to enable them to meet these as well as teaching responsibilities.

· If the teachers are not well known to you, or if you are faced with using a large number of paraprofessionals, begin with a simple literacy test - this way you can place the right people in the right kinds of jobs.

· Determine if the curriculum, syllabus and teachers’ guides are available and appropriate for use.

If they are available, what adaptations will need to be made to meet the current circumstances? For example, should they be simplified because it is mostly paraprofessionals who are available or should there be information added on such topics as mine awareness?

If they are not available, identify teachers and individuals (from teacher training colleges, universities, Ministry of Education, for example) who could do the necessary professional work to develop a temporary curriculum, syllabus and teachers’ guides. As input to this process, you might include examples from another country or situation.

If they are available but not in the necessary language, identify and engage translators who have demonstrated their skills in accurate translation.

If there are plenty of well-trained teachers available:

· Work with them to develop creative ways of providing learning opportunities in the new conditions. This may involve engaging some of them in developing materials, others in identifying sources of locally available educational supports, and still others in working with parents to ensure that children are allowed to participate, for example.

· Encourage them to begin searching for ways to involve parents, community members and interested paraprofessionals in the learning activities of the children.

· Attempt to discover the various strengths of teachers in a particular community. Some teachers are very good at math, others at organizing, others at working with ‘troubled’ children, for example. The extent to which you can use the skills of individuals where they are most needed will make your overall job much easier.

Where there are not many trained teachers available:

· Work with trained teachers to encourage them to view paraprofessionals as colleagues who have needed skills and who can be helpful.

· Use local and international specialists, including local teachers to develop a teacher training programme and materials package for use with paraprofessionals.

· It may be useful to divide the paraprofessionals into different groups according to levels of expertise. For example, secondary school graduates may be better able to work with the content of curriculum designed for older children than those who only have a few years of primary education. Those who are not literate may still have a lot to offer in terms of facilities maintenance and management, enrolment records (through simple community mapping techniques such as those developed in Uganda), or as teachers’ aides, especially if there are likely to be large classes or classes with children of differing age and ability.

· Try to determine if there are some trained teachers who can be immediately used to work with para-professionals, even training them on a daily basis in preparation for the next day’s classes.

· Identify simple mechanisms for a few individuals to serve as ‘pedagogical supports’ to paraprofessionals. These people would observe classes, provide guidance to paraprofessionals, and assist with quality assurance.

For all teachers and paraprofessionals:

· Provide short-term introduction to the goals and objectives of the education programme.

· Design an in-service training programme to support teachers in their work. It will probably be most expedient to develop a simple but regular set of meetings so that teachers can support each other in what will be difficult teaching conditions. Within the training, address such issues as conflict resolution, alternative classroom organization strategies (such as children working in groups, sitting in a circle rather than in rows, peer support activities, etc.), and problem-solving approaches.

· If children and teachers have been subjected to conflict or other trauma, provide short-term training related to this. It is important to acknowledge that teachers will have to recognize and address their own trauma and stresses before they are able to be supportive of children. The Child Protection Section should be helpful in this regard.

· If the emergency appears to be protracted, work with the teachers, particularly the paraprofessionals, and the education authorities to design a longer-term training programme that can have certification attached to it.

· Include training on classroom management and on gender issues in the learning environment.

· Soon after classes are up and running, begin to involve all participants in assessing how things are going and how they might be adapted to improve the situation for the children, teachers and communities. This assessment process is very important for both the quality of education and for building community cohesion around the education process.

· Develop simple mechanisms for collecting and updating data on children, in and out of school, teachers, and other resources that can contribute to the re-establishment and further development of primary education.

Work with all those providing primary education to:

· Determine how to build team approaches to primary education. This might involve short workshops on ‘things that have worked’ or ‘clustering’ para-professionalled classes around those led by ‘master’ teachers.

· Identify incentives and motivation for improved performance. Often motivation has more to do with the ability to make decisions in and around the classroom than with an increase in salary.

· Develop trust among all those engaged in primary education. This includes recognition of the difficult circumstances under which they are working and increasingly trusting the judgement of head teachers and teachers.

· Establish early agreements with all other partners working with teachers and paraprofessionals on qualifications, incentives, gender parity, selection criteria, etc.