Cover Image
close this bookTechnical notes: Special Considerations for Programming in Unstable Situations (UNICEF, 2000, 490 p.)
Open this folder and view contentsIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1. Protecting and Promoting Health
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 1: Assuring Basic Health Care Services
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 2: Immunization (Measles and other EPI Antigens)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 3: Diarrhoeal Disease Control
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 4: Containing Outbreaks of Cholera, Dysentery and Typhoid
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 5: Control of Acute Respiratory Infections
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 6: Essential Drugs and Supplies
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 7: Management, Control and Prevention of the Most Common Communicable Diseases
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 8: Protecting Pregnancy in Emergencies
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 9: Prevention and Treatment of STDs/HIV/AIDS
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 1 - Annex 10: Health Monitoring and Surveillance
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2: Supporting Nutritional Needs
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 1: Therapy for Severe Malnutrition
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 2: Assessing Nutritional Status
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 3: Assessing Household Food Security
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 4: Infant Feeding in Emergencies: Policy, Strategy & Practice
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 2 - Annex 5: Malnutrition, Nutrient Requirements and Nutrient Sources
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3: Ongoing Education
View the documentChapter 3 - Annex 1: Information Gathering and Needs Assessment
View the documentChapter 3 - Annex 2: Guidelines for Teacher Training
View the documentChapter 3 - Annex 3: Educational Kits (Edukits)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 3 - Annex 4: Education for Peace and Conflict Resolution
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 4: Children Separated from Families
View the documentChapter 4 - Annex 1: Identification Photographs in Family Tracing
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 5 - Internally Displaced Children and Women
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6: Anti-Personnel Landmines
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6 - Annex 1: Landmine/UXO Awareness: Curriculum ContentFootnote
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 6 - Annex 2: Feasibility Study and Needs Assessment *
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 7: Protecting the Rights of the Child
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 7 - Annex 1: Evacuation of Children from Conflict Situations
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 8: Gender Issues
View the documentChapter 8 - Annex 1: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) 18 December 1979 (extracts)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9: Early Childhood Development and Protection
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9 - Annex 1: Violence and Young Children: Behavioural Consequences
View the documentChapter 9 - Annex 2: Therapeutic Language: Talking with Distressed Children
View the documentChapter 9 - Annex 3: The Healing Role of Play and Art
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 9 - Annex 4: Building Resilience: Implications for Programmes
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 10: Young People, with a Focus on AdolescentsFootnote 1
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 10 - Annex 1: Safe Places for Young People
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 11: Sexual Violence
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 12 - Child Combatants
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 13: Children in Detention
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 13 - Annex 1: Juvenile Justice
View the documentChapter 13 - Annex 2: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948 (extracts)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 14: Protecting Psychosocial Development
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 14 - Annex 1: Copyright of Original Art/Writings Created by Children
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 15: The Impact of Sanctions
View the documentChapter 15 - Annex 1: Reducing the Negative Humanitarian Impact of Sanctions
View the documentChapter 16: Human Rights SITAN
View the documentChapter 16 - Annex 1: Institutionalising Human Rights
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17: Managing Water Resources
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 1: Distribution and Storage of Water
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 2: Water Sources (Exploitation and Rehabilitation)
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 3: Water Quality and Treatment
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 4: Water Pumps, Pipes and Fittings
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 17 - Annex 5: Water and Sanitation in Urban Areas
View the documentChapter 17 - Annex 6: Water Assessment Checklistnote
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 18: Supporting Shelter and Domestic Needs
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19: Developing Sanitation Systems & Approaches
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 1: Types of Latrine
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 2: Disposing of Excreta
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 3: Environmental Sanitation
Open this folder and view contentsChapter 19 - Annex 4: Vector Control (Control of disease-carrying insects and rodents)
View the documentCharter of the United Nations

Chapter 3 - Annex 3: Educational Kits (Edukits)

The development of Educational Kits (Edukits) was initiated by UNESCO and UNICEF in Rwanda and Somalia, as a means to help children of these countries access or pursue their primary education. ‘School in a box’ was first viewed as a basic rapid response that allowed the delivery of essential learning and teaching materials to places where educational services had been disrupted due to sudden severe situations such as war, civil strife or natural disaster. One of the lessons from this early experience was the local specificity of even quite basic supplies, so that initial kits should contain the absolute basic materials that will enable the resumption of learning. These can then be supplemented and adapted to suit the local curriculum and conditions.

UNICEF Education Section, EMOPS and Supply Division are now finalising the latest revision for two rapid response kits (education, recreation) and working on the development of a kit for early childhood care. The content of edukits is seen as being dynamic, responding to a specific environment and changing needs, and using materials that have been shown to work well in field situations. Items such as wall charts with specific messages may be included, providing for instant information on cholera in areas where this is a health risk, or on mines awareness where conflict has resulted in the placement of landmines. The overall concept is described in more detail below.

The standardised Education Kits and Recreation Kits were developed to ensure quick delivery of basic learning materials in a rapid response situation, and should be regarded as a first response only. In consultation with the local community these kits should be supplemented with locally relevant materials as soon as possible.

In longer term situations of instability locally developed kits often replace the rapid response kits. These kits should, wherever possible, be locally procured, and should avoid items, which cannot be replaced with locally obtainable materials.

Kits for primary education. The education kit consists of two sets of basic materials for classes of approximately 80 students (assuming double sessions of 40) and the teacher/facilitator. The ‘consumables’ are for the learner to use. They include such items as slates, chalks, exercise books, number charts, pencils, and erasers.

Currently the contents of the standard Education Kit are as follows:

Students’ Materials

Quantity

Description

40

Crayon, wax/BOX-8

100

Eraser, soft, for pencil

100

Book,exercise, squared

100

Book, exercise, ruled

100

Pencil sharpener

144

Pencil for slate

144

Pencil, HB grade, black

80

Bag, carrier

10

Ruler, 30 cm/SET-10

40

Scissors, safety, B/B

50

Slate, student’s

40

Scissors, safety, B/B

50

Slate, student’s

Teacher’s Materials

2

Pen, black

2

Pen, red

2

Pen, blue

3

Chalk, colours/BOX-100

3

Chalk, white/BOX-100

2

Book,exercise, A4,ruled

2

Pens, felt-tip/SET-6

2

Paint, chalkboard, black

2

Register, A4, squared

1

Bag,hand,blue nylon

1

Triangle, 30-60-90 deg

1

Triangle, 90-45 deg

1

Clock, teaching, wood

1

Scissors, sharp,180mm

1

Tape, measure, 5m

1

Brush, paint

1

Box, for storage

1

Posters/SET-3

1

Compass, 40 cm

1

Ruler, 100 cm

1

Cubes, coloured/SET-100

1

Duster/Wiper

The second set is the responsibility of the teacher/facilitator and/or the community, and constitutes the ‘classroom-based’ materials. It includes chalk, atlas, blackboard, geometric instruments, calendar, scissors, etc. Textbooks, charts, maps and other educational materials may vary from country to country according to the national curriculum and specific situation and needs. Each kit also contains simple guidelines for care and use of the kits.

Recreation kits. These kits have been developed to facilitate recreation activities among children affected by crisis. Children often often make their own toys and equipment for games, and these supplies should be used to supplement rather than replace the indigenous materials. The kit is designed for use by girls as well as boys. The current contents of the standard rapid response recreation kit are as follows:

Quantity

Item Description

1

Box, metal, lockable, for storage

3

Book, exercise, A4,ruled-8mm, 96 pages

12

Pen, ball-point, black

1

Chalk, powdered/BOX 3kg

2

Whistle, referee’s, non-metallic

2

Inflating-kit for balls

1

Tape, measure, 5m length

2

Slate, student’s, A4 (210x297mm)

3

Chalk, white/BOX-100

1

Bag, hand, blue nylon,23x36x61cm

1

T-shirt, UNICEF, cotton, large

1

Cap, UNICEF, baseball, white, cotton

20

Tabards, coloured (to distinguish teams)

2

Skittles, SET-10 + 2 balls

2

Volleyball, professional model

1

Volleyball net, 9.5x1m, w/o posts

2

Football, round, junior, synth leather

10

Ball, sponge rubber, 60-80 mm diam.

6

Pickets with flags

2

Handball, senior, synthetic leather

3

Handball, junior, synthetic leather

Teacher training and curriculum development workshops. A workshop resource kit is being designed and developed. It will address such topics as identifying appropriate curricula, agreeing on teacher and curriculum development strategies, and establishing mechanisms to produce or acquire appropriate curriculum and teacher support materials. It will draw on existing materials that have been developed for emergency situations to the extent possible.

Strengthening local capacity and participation. Supplies should take into account what is available locally, what can be made or assembled locally, and aim to support locally based supplies and materials in the long run. They are designed to be both educationally sound and to foster a sense of community through student/family ‘ownership’ of selected items. Students, families and community members involved in the programme should be held responsible for taking care of the consumables and ensuring that they are utilized for their intended purposes. This should help bring families and communities into partnership in the education process, thus serving to rebuild community relationships.