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close this bookTechnical notes: Special Considerations for Programming in Unstable Situations (UNICEF, 2000, 490 p.)
close this folderChapter 17: Managing Water Resources
View the documentForenote
View the documentRationale
View the documentGeneral Aim
View the documentBasic Principles
Open this folder and view contentsIdentifying Priorities
Open this folder and view contentsStrategies
Open this folder and view contentsField-Level Actions and Strategies
View the documentAssessing Water Needs
Open this folder and view contentsAssessment Guidelines
View the documentFurther Guidance (Essential References)

Assessing Water Needs

Actual water needs depend on several factors and may vary greatly from one situation to the next. These include:

· temperature

· human workloads

· hygiene and environmental conditions

· exposure to water- and sanitation-related diseases

· essential economic activities related to water availability and use, especially for stock animals and household food security

· standards prior to the emergency

· the type of technologies used

· costs and affordability

For example, conventional flush toilets would require more water than a pour-flush toilet or dry-pit latrine. A population used to having plenty of available water piped into the home may find it difficult to cope with very limited amounts, whereas, this may not be so difficult for those not having such a high level of service prior to the emergency. A general indication for estimating water requirements in emergencies is given in annex 1 on detailed water assessment checklists.