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close this bookWHO Recommended Surveillance Standards (WHO - OMS, 1999, 157 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentAcronyms
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentNational Coordination of Communicable Disease Surveillance
View the documentExplanatory notes
View the documentSurveillance activities: criteria and WHO Department
View the documentCommunicable disease contacts in Regional Offices
Open this folder and view contentsDiseases
Open this folder and view contentsSyndromes
View the documentAnnex 1 Software free and in the public domain
View the documentAnnex 2 Proposed surveillance definitions
View the documentAnnex 3 Role and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and mapping for epidemiological surveillance

Communicable disease contacts in Regional Offices

1. WHO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR AFRICA (AFRO) Member States

Algeria

Eritrea

Namibia

Angola

Ethiopia

Niger

Benin

Gabon

Nigeria

Botswana

Gambia

Rwanda

Burkina Faso

Ghana

Sao Tome and Principe

Burundi

Guinea

Senegal

Cameroon

Guinea-Bissau

Seychelles

Cape Verde

Kenya

Sierra Leone

Central African Republic

Lesotho

South Africa

Chad

Liberia

Swaziland

Comoros

Madagascar

Togo

Congo

Malawi

Uganda

Côte d'lvoire

Mali

United Republic of

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Mauritania

Tanzania

Equatorial Guinea

Mauritius

Zambia

Mozambique

Zimbabwe

Contacts

Dr A. Kabore, A/Director, Prevention and Control of Diseases (DDC)

Direct telephone: 1 407 733 92 36
Fax: 1 407 733 9009

Dr P. Lusamba, A/Regional Adviser, Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Control (EMC)

Direct telephone: 1 407 733 9338, 26311 40 38 23
Fax: 1 407 733 9009

E-mail:

ADIKPETOE@WHO.ORG
LUSAMBAP@WHOAFR.ORG
SAMBAE@HTSD.COM at INET
ALEMUW@WHOAFR.ORG

Following the temporary closure of the AFRO office in Brazzaville, a temporary office has been set up in Harare

Tel: 263 4 706 951/707 493
Fax: 263 4 705 619/702 044

If you experience difficulties in communicating with AFRO on disease surveillance issues, please contact WHO, Geneva,

Tel: 41 22 791 21 11/24142/2314;
E-mail: Surveillancekit@who.ch

Summary, AFRO Regional Plan for communicable disease surveillance

The main communicable diseases in the Region can be classified as follows:

targeted for eradication: dracunculiasis, poliomyelitis
targeted for elimination: leprosy, neonatal tetanus
epidemic-prone: bacillary dysentery, cholera, measles, meningococcal
meningitis, plague, viral haemorrhagic fevers, yellow fever.

Other diseases of public health importance: diarrhoea (<5yr), HIV/AIDS, STIs malaria, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases, trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, onchocerciasis.

Resolution AFR/RC48/R2 of the Regional Committee recommends that Member States

1. Assess their surveillance systems for communicable diseases.

2. Assess the laboratory component of disease control programmes, including drug resistance.

3. Take the necessary measures, including resource allocation, to implement an integrated regional strategy for disease surveillance.

4. Effectively participate in intercountry cooperation activities.

5. Make effective use of epidemiological data in decision-making, priority setting and resource allocation.

2. WHO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR THE AMERICAS (AMRO, PAHO) Member States

Antigua and Barbuda

Cuba

Panama

Anguilla

Dominica

Paraguay

Argentina

Dominican Republic

Peru

Aruba

Ecuador

Puerto Rico*

Bahamas

El Salvador

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Barbados

Grenada

Saint Lucia

Belize

Guatemala

Saint Vincent and the

Bolivia

Guyana

Grenadines

Brazil

Haiti

Suriname

Canada

Honduras

Trinidad and Tobago

Cayman Islands, Chile

Jamaica

Turks and Caicos Islands

Colombia

Mexico

United States of America

Costa Rica

Montserrat

Uruguay

Nicaragua

Venezuela

* Associate Member

France

(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique)

Netherlands

(Netherlands Antilles)

United Kingdom

(British Virgin Islands)


Contacts

Dr S. Corber, Director, Communicable Disease Prevention and Control (HCP)

Direct telephone 001 202 974-3648 or 3643
Fax 001 202 974-3632
E-mail: CORBERST@PAHO.ORG

Dr G. Schmunis, Coordinator, Communicable Diseases program (HCP/HCT)

Direct telephone 001 202 974 32 72
Fax 001 202 974 36 88
E-mail: SCHMUNIG@PAHO.ORG

Dr. M. Libel, Communicable Diseases Program (HCP/HCT)

Direct telephone 001 202 974 31 29
Fax 001 202 974 36 88
E-mail: LIBELAMAR@PAHO.ORG

Dr. R. Rodriguez, Communicable Diseases Program (HCP/HCT)

Direct Telephone 001 202 974 34 94
Fax 001 202 974 36 88
E-mail: RODRIGRO@PAHO.ORG

Summary, AMRO/PAHO Regional Plan for communicable disease surveillance:

1. Strengthen regional surveillance networks for infectious diseases in the Americas. Surveillance networks are closely linked with reference diagnostic support and function as early warning systems. An integrated electronic platform will capture and disseminate via the Internet information on the occurrence of selected infectious diseases and identified outbreaks.

2. Establish national and regional infrastructures for early warning and rapid response to infectious disease threats through laboratory enhancement and multidisciplinary training programs.

3. Promote the further development of applied research in the areas of rapid diagnosis, epidemiology, and prevention. In addition to Region-wide emerging infectious threats such as cholera, tuberculosis, and HIV, disease-specific research priorities should be developed on a country-by-country basis.

4. Strengthen regional capacity for implementation of prevention and control strategies (action and feedback components of the Regional Plan of Action).

3. WHO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR THE EASTERN (EMRO) MEDITERRANEAN Member States

Afghanistan

Jordan

Saudi Arabia

Bahrain

Kuwait

Somalia

Cyprus

Lebanon

Sudan

Djibouti

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Syrian Arab Republic

Egypt

Morocco

Tunisia

Iran (Islamic Republic of)

Oman

United Arab Emirates

Iraq

Pakistan

Yemen

Qatar

Plus: Palestine self-ruled area

Contacts

Dr M.H. Wahdan, Assistant Regional Director

Direct tel. 00 203 483 0039
Fax 00 203 48 21 545
E-mail: WAHDANM@WHO.SCI.EG

Dr B. Sadrizadeh, Director, Integrated Control of Diseases

Fax 00 203 48 38 916
E-mail: SADRIZADEB@WHO.SCI.EG

Dr. E. El Samani, Regional Adviser/CSR

Direct telephone 00 203 4830096
Fax 00 203 4838916
E-mail: ELSAMANIF@WHO.SCI.EG

Summary, EMRO Regional Plan for communicable disease surveillance:

1. Develop a list of priority diseases for surveillance.

2. Develop guidelines for surveillance.

3. Develop national epidemic management systems.

4. Develop an efficient public information system.

5. Identify Regional collaborating centres and strengthen their role.

6. Develop a Regional rapid response system.

7. Strengthen communication channels between WHO and Member States.

4. WHO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EUROPE (EURO) Member States

Albania

Greece

Republic of Moldova

Andorra

Hungary

Romania

Armenia

Iceland

Russian Federation

Austria

Ireland

San Marino

Azerbaijan

Israel

Slovakia

Belarus

Italy

Slovenia

Belgium

Kazakhstan

Spain

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Kyrgyzstan

Sweden

Bulgaria

Latvia

Switzerland

Croatia

Lithuania

Tajikistan

Czech Republic

Luxembourg

The Former Yugoslav Republic

Denmark

Malta

of Macedonia

Estonia

Monaco

Turkey

Finland

Netherlands

Turkmenistan

France

Norway

Ukraine

Georgia

Poland

United Kingdom

Germany

Portugal

Uzbekistan



Yugoslavia

Contacts

Dr S.K. Litvinov, Department of Infectious Diseases

Direct telephone: 00 45 39 17 13 52/14 15 (secretariat)
Fax: 00 45 39 17 18 51
E-mail: skl@who.dk

Dr. M. Ciotti, DID Tel: 00 45 39 17 14 15 Fax: 00 45 39 17 18 51

E-mail: mci@who.dk

Summary, EURO Regional Plan for communicable disease surveillance___

The work of WHO/EURO's Communicable Disease and Immunization Programme focuses on the major regional public health problems in this area: HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and diseases preventable by immunization (including the eradication of poliomyelitis). Following political and socio-economic changes in eastern Europe, many communicable disease problems have emerged or re-emerged. These include:

· epidemic diphtheria and syphilis
· HIV among injectable drug users and other groups at higher risk
· a dramatic increase in tuberculosis morbidity and mortality
· the increasing occurrence of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment
· the re-emergence of malaria in countries bordering EMRO and SEARO
· outbreaks and epidemics of food- and water-borne diarrhoeal diseases

These make the programmes for surveillance and control of communicable diseases in the eastern part of the Region a priority. The plan of work for the biennium has been approved by the Regional Committee.

5. WHO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR SOUTH-EAST ASIA (SEARO) Member States

Bangladesh

India

Nepal

Bhutan

Indonesia

Sri Lanka

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Maldives

Thailand

Myanmar

Contacts

Dr Vijay Kumar, Director, Integrated Control of Diseases (ICD)

Tel: 00 91 11 331 7804 ext 523/524
Fax: 00 91 11 331 8412

Dr M.V.H. Gunaratne, Regional adviser on Communicable Diseases (CDG)

Tel: 91 11 3318412
Fax: 91 11 331 8607
E-mail: GUNARATNEM@WHOSEA.ORG

Dr A.G. Andjaparidze, Regional Adviser on Communicable Diseases (CDA)

Tel: 00 91 11 331 7804 to 7823
Fax: 00 91 11 331 8412
E-mail: ANDJAPARIDZEA@WHOSEA.ORG

Dr Deoraj (Harry) CAUSSY, Regional Epidemiologist

Tel: 00 9111 331 7804 to 7823
Fax: 00 9111 331-8412 and 8607
E-mail: CAUSSYD@WHOSEA.ORG

Should you experience difficulties in reaching the above, call Fax 91 11 3327972

Summary, SEARO Regional Plan for communicable disease surveillance

The region has adopted an integrated approach to combat communicable diseases of public health importance. The regional priorities include:

The eradication or elimination of diseases such as dracunculiasis (India), leprosy and poliomyelitis in the Region.

Reducing the burden of malaria and tuberculosis

Intensifying the prevention and control efforts for communicable diseases that are major public health problems in the Region, through the establishment of appropriate national and regional surveillance mechanisms.

Strengthening of surveillance and monitoring of priority communicable diseases with a potential to spread rapidly and organising an effective response to these disease outbreaks/epidemics through planning, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes.

The following are regional strategies for the coming years towards the prevention and control of communicable diseases:

1. Strengthen epidemiological surveillance.
2. Strengthen laboratory capabilities and services.
3. Establish rapid response mechanisms.
4. Monitor antimicrobial resistance.
5. Establish international disease surveillance networking.
6. Ensure advocacy and mobilization of international support.

6. WHO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR THE WESTERN PACIFIC (WPRO) Member States

Australia

Malaysia

Republic of Korea

Brunei Darussalam

Marshall Islands

Samoa

Cambodia

Micronesia (Federated

Singapore

China

States of)

Solomon Islands

Cook Islands

Mongolia

Tokelau*

Fiji

Nauru

Tonga

Japan

New Zealand

Tuvalu

Kiribati

Niue

Vanuatu

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Palau

Viet Nam


Papua New Guinea


Philippines

*Associate Member

France

(French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna Islands)

Portugal

(Macao)

United Kingdom

(Pitcairn Island)

United States of America

(American Samoa, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands)

Contacts

Dr J.B. Bilous, Director, Communicable Disease Prevention and Control CDS (M)

Tel: 006325288001
Fax: 00 632 521 1036
E-mail: bilousj@who.org.ph

A/Regional Adviser in Communicable Diseases, CDS (Dr Chris Maher)

Tel: 00 632 522 9964
Fax: 00 632 528 8001
E-mail: maherc@who.org.ph

Dr Reiko Muto, Associate Professional Officer, CDS

E-mail: mutor@who.org.ph

Summary, WPRO Regional Plan for communicable disease surveillance

Measles surveillance

Poliomyelitis surveillance

Surveillance on antimicrobial resistance

STD/AIDS surveillance, including gonococcal infections

Surveillance on anti-malaria and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

Influenza surveillance in China (human and animal strains)

For other selected infectious diseases, annual or monthly report of cases to WPRO.

WPRO is also developing Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD) surveillance mechanisms as part of global CJD surveillance (although CJD has not been reported from the Region).