|Technical notes: Special Considerations for Programming in Unstable Situations (UNICEF, 2000, 490 p.)|
|Chapter 19 - Annex 1: Types of Latrine|
The OXFAM sanitation unit is an example of a complete, packaged system ready-to-assemble on-site. These units can be air freighted into emergency situations, if necessary. Each unit comprises 20 squatting plates, two flexible tanks made of nylon-reinforced butyl rubber for sewage treatment, and all necessary pipes and fittings. An experienced team of two people can typically assemble the complete unit in about 1-2 days.
· This system is suitable for use most soil conditions, as the unit is self-contained, but does require a soak pit or treatment pool.
· One unit can serve up to 1,000 persons per day.
· One unit typically requires about 3,000 litres of water a day at full design capacity (water must not be saline).
· This system is not suitable for communities who use solids (stones, corncobs, etc.) for anal cleaning and has therefore been used widely in Asia but little in Africa to date.
The main disadvantages are cost, problems of unfamiliarity, and the quantity of water required. A reliable operator is essential. The effluent contains as many bacteria as raw sewage and must, therefore, be carefully treated before being released into the environment.
The descriptions provided in this annex are adapted from the UNHCR Handbook for Emergencies.