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close this bookPatent situation of HIV/AIDS-related drugs in 80 countries (UNAIDS - WHO/EDM, 2000, 11 p.)
View the document(introductory text...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentWhat are patents and how are they regulated internationally?
View the documentReview of patent expiry dates of HIV/AIDS drugs
View the documentFurther readings

Further readings

Information on broader aspects of access to HIV/AIDS related drugs and further information on intellectual property rights for pharmaceuticals are available in the following links and references.

· Questions and Answers on pharmaceuticals and the WTO TRIPS Agreement
· http://www.who.int/medicines/
· http://www.unaids.org/

Access to HIV/AIDS-related drugs

· Technical Up-date: Access to drugs addressing the main obstacles and challenges in improving access to drugs for people living with HIV. (UNAIDS Best practice Collection, 1998).


· Model Prescribing Information for the use of the drugs used in HIV-related infections. (WHO/DMP/DSI/99.2)


· Guidelines on Standard treatments and Essential Drugs for HIV-related conditions- Access to HIV-related Drugs (WHO/DAP, December 1997).


·The implications of antiretroviral treatment” organised by WHO and UNAIDS (April 1997)


· Modules technical and policy guidance modules on antiretroviral treatments for health planners and policy makers (WHO/ASD/98.1, UNAIDS/98/7).


Intellectual property rights and pharmaceuticals

· WHO/EDM. Globalization, patents and drugs - an annotated bibliography. Health Economics and Drugs EDM Series No. 9. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999 (WHO/EDM/PAR/99.6).


· WHO/EDM. Globalization and access to drugs - perspectives on the WTO TRIPS Agreement. Health Economics and Drugs EDM Series No.7. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1999 (WHO/EDM/98.9 Revised).


· Otten A. The implications of the TRIPS Agreement for the protection of pharmaceutical inventions. WHO Drug Information. 1997(11): 1.


· UNCTAD. The TRIPS Agreement and developing countries. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development; 1996. UNCTAD/ITE/1.


· South Centre. The TRIPs Agreement - a guide for the South. Geneva: South Centre; 1997.


· IFPMA. The Question of patents. Geneva: International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations; 1998.


· Health Action International. Power, patents and pills - an examination of GATT/WTO policies and essential drug policies. Seminar Report. Amsterdam: HAI-Europe; 1997.

Drug

Patent owner

Basic Patent priority date

Max. 20 years patent protection

US patent expiry date

French or Europ. patent expiry date

Countries where similar patents have been filed or granted

Anti-infective drugs

albendazole

SmithKline

19 Jun 74

19 Jun 1995

19 Jun 94, but excl. marketing rights until 11 Jun 2003 (as an orphan drug)

N/A

Australia, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Philippines, Portugal, USSR, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Yugoslavia

azythromycin

Pliva

6 Mar 81

6 Mar 2002

14 May 2002, ext. until Nov 2005 (+ 1267 days)

Fr 1 Mar 2002, ext. until 3 Apr 2006 (MA)

Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Rep., France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, USSR, Yugoslavia


Pfizer

9 July 87

9 July 2008

N/A

EP 28 Jun 2008

ARIPO, Australia, Bosnia, Canada, China, Cyprus, Czech Rep., Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, OAPI, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, Yugoslavia

ceftriaxone

Roche

30 May 78

30 May 1999

27 Apr. 99

EP 30 May 1999

Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, IT, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Korea, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Malaysia, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, OAPI, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, UK, US, USSR, Yugoslavia.

5Countries in bold are those where a patent was granted (Derwent database), as compared with other countries where data are available regarding patent applications only (Derwent + European Patent Office website).

6European patents, granted by the European Patent Office (Munich) may have effect in up to 18 European countries (Austria - AT, Belgium - BE, Denmark - DK, Finland - FI, France - FR, Germany - DE, Greece - GR, Ireland - IE, Italy - IT, Liechtenstein - LI, Luxembourg - LU, Monaco - MO, Netherlands - NL, Portugal - PT, Spain - ES, Sweden - SE, Switzerland - CH, United Kingdom - GB).

Drug

Patent owner

Basic Patent priority date (origin)

Max. 20 years patent protection

US patent expiry date

French or Europ. patent expiry date

Countries where similar patents have been filed or granted

cidofovir

Czech. Academy

18 Jul 86

18 Jul 2007

26 June 2010 (14 years after MA)

EP 17 Jul 2007

Australia, Brazil, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, GR, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, US

ciprofloxacin

Bayer

3 Sept 80

3 Sept 2001

9 Dec 2003 (?)

EP 21 Aug 2001 Fr ext. until 29 Oct 2004

Australia, Cyprus, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, NL, SE), Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, US

clarithromycin

Taisho

4 Jun 80

4 Jun 2001

19 Jun 2001, ext. until Jun 2005 (+ 1465 days)

EP 27 May 2001 Fr ext. until 26 May 2008 (7 years)

EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, NL, SE), Japan, US

fluconazole

Pfizer

6 Jun 1981

6 Jun 2002

1 Jun 2002, ext. until 29 Jan 2004 (14 years after MA)

EP 22 Apr 2002, Fr ext. until 7 Mar 2005 (MA)

Australia, Bosnia, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Portugal, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, US, USSR Yugoslavia

foscarnet

Astra

1 Jul 76

1 Jul 1997

29 Jul 97, ext. until 6 June 2000 (+ 1042 days)

Fr 30 Jun 97, ext. until 29 Jun 2002 (5 years)

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, UK, Singapore, Sweden, Switzerland, US

ganciclovir

Syntex

21 May 81

21 May 2002

21 May 2001, ext. until 23 Jun 2003 (14 years after MA)

EP 19 May 2002

Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, USSR, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, US

itraconazole

Janssen

23 Jun 78

23 Jun 99

23 Jun 98, ext. until 23 Jun 2000 (2 years)

EP 13 Jun 99 Fr ext. until 12 Jun 2006 (7 years)

Australia, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LU, LI, SE), Finland, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, USSR, Singapore, South Africa, US, Yugoslavia

ivermectin

Merck

16 Dec 74

16 Dec 95

Expired ?

N/A

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, OAPI, Philippines, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Yugoslavia

rifabutin

Archifar

13 Jun 75

13 Jun 96

26 Aug 97, ext. until July 2000 (+ 1406 days)

Fr 14 Jun 96, ext. until 13 June 2001 (5 years)

Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, USSR, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Yugoslavia

Antiretrovirals

delavirdine

Upjohn

28 Dec 89

28 Dec 2010

8 Oct 2013 (17 years, numerous patents)

EP 24 Dec 2010

Australia, Canada, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Hong Kong, Hungary, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Russia, US

didanosine

Wellcome Found

15 May 85

15 May 2006


EP 14 May 2006

Australia, Canada, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Greece, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, US


US Gov.

26 Aug 85

26 Aug 2006

29 Aug 2006 (17 years)

EP 21 Aug 2006 Fr ext. until 4 May 2009

Australia, Canada, Cyprus, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, US

efavirenz

Merck

7 Aug 92

7 Aug 2013

7 Aug 2012

EP 3 Aug 2013?

Australia, Bulgaria, Brazil, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Rep., EP, Finland, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Romania, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, US

indinavir

Merck

8 Nov 91

8 Nov 2012

7 May 2013 (20 years)

EP 2 Nov 2012

Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Rep, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, NL, PT, SE), Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Latvia, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Taiwan, US

lamivudine

IAF Biochem.

8 Feb 89

8 Feb 2010

8 Feb 2009

EP 8 Feb 2010 Fr ext. until 7 Aug 2011 (15 years after MA)

ARIPO, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Rep., EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Norway, New Zealand, OAPI, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, US, Yugoslavia

nelfinavir

Agouron

7 Oct 93

7 Oct 2014

7 Oct 2013

EP 7 Oct 2014

Australia, ARIPO, Bulgaria, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Rep., EP, Finland, Hungary, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, US

nevirapine

Boehringer

17 Nov 89

17 Nov 2010

22 Nov 2011 (17 years, numerous patents)

EP 16 Nov 2010

Australia, ARIPO, Canada, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Hungary, Israel, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, OAPI, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, US, South Africa

ritonavir

Abbott

29 Dec 92

29 Dec 2013

29 Dec 2012

EP 16 Dec 2013

Australia, Brazil, Canada, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GB, GR, IE, IT, LI, LU, NL, PT, SE), Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, US

saquinavir

Roche

11 Dec 89

11 Dec 2010

19 Nov 2010 (20 years)

EP 10 Dec 2010 Fr ext. until 3 Oct 2011 (15 years after MA)

Australia, Brazil, Canada, Czech Rep., China, Croatia, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, DK, ES, FR, GR, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Korea, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Malawi, Mexico, Malta, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway, OAPI, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, UK, US, Zimbabwe

stavudine

Yale University

17 Dec 86

17 Dec 2007

25 Jun 2008 (ext. /MA)

EP 11 Dec 2007 Fr ext. until 8 May 2011 (15 years from MA)

Australia, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, ES, FR, GB, GR, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, US, South Africa

zalcitabine

US Gov.

26 Aug 85

26 Aug 2006

7 Nov 2006 (17 years)

EP 21 Aug 2006 Fr ext. until 1 Dec 2008 (15 years from MA)

Australia, Canada, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, US

zidovudine

Glaxo

16 Mar 85

16 Mar 2006

17 Sept 2005 (20 years)

EP 14 Mar 2006

ARIPO, Australia, Canada, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, EP (AT, BE, CH, DE, FR, GB, IT, LI, LU, NL, SE), Finland, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Monaco, New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, Singapore, South Africa, US