Te Wananga 1874-1878
Published: Pakowhai, August 5, 1874 - December 21, 1878.
290 x 220mm., 8 to 12 pages with occasional supplements, Māori with English translation to most of the material, for the first five months the paper was issued fortnightly and then weekly, no illustrations, initially no advertisements (these commence from July 26, 1875), the cost was 5 pence per copy and 10 shillings per year, in 1877 this increased to 20 shillings per year. The imprint in the first four issues reads,"Na Henare Hira, i ta, i raro i te mana o Henare Tomoana, Pakowhai" [Printed by Henry Hill under the authority of Henare Tomoana, Pakowhai.] The first four issues are all Maori. In issue Number 5 the motto "Tihe Mauri-ora" [I sneeze, there is life] is added, the issues are numbered and the imprint changes to: "He mea ta e Henare Hira, a he mea panui e Henare Tomoana, e te tangata nana tenei nupepa, i te Whare ta o 'Te Wananga' i Pakowhai, Nepia" [Printed by Henry Hill, published by Henare Tomoana, the proprietor of this newspaper, at the 'Wananga' Press, Pakowhai, Napier].
On June 7, 1875 there was a supplement published in English containing the hearing of the case (between Te Waka Maori and Te Wananga) before the Supreme Court. It was noted that the Maori version would be published in the July issue.
The newspaper ceased publication due to lack of financial support: Engari ko te Wananga i maumau ake ano, a i muri tata iho ka mate i te hemokai, kaore i whangaia e te Iwi Maori ki te kai (Aotearoa, June 4, 1892: 1) [The Wananga wasted away; and soon afterwards died of hunger; the Maori tribes did not give it sustenance].
This Waka was edited by John White, Governor Grey's secretary. He collected oral traditions during the 1840s and 1850s from which was published Grey's Nga Mahi a Nga Tupuna and White's The Ancient History of the Maori.
For further physical details refer to Herbert W. Williams, A Bibliography of Printed Maori to 1900, Item 504.
This paper is written in Maori for the first four issues, and from then on in Maori and English.
The intention of the newspaper was expressed in the first issue: He Perehi tenei mo te Motu katoa, mo nga tangata maori, kua huaina tona ingoa ko te Wananga o nga iwi katoa inaianei...hei ritenga ia mo te Perehi e huihui ia tatou ki te whakaaro kotahi, koia i huaina ai kia te Wananga, no te mea, mo tatou katoa tenei taonga (August 5, 1874: 1) [This is a Press for the whole Island, for Maori people, it has been entitled Te Wananga for all the present day tribes...in the manner of the Press it will bring us to a consensus of opinion, hence its title 'Te Wananga', because it is an asset for us all].
The organisation and cost of the newspaper was reached by agreement in submissions from the Maori committee of each district (October 10, 1874: 1).
The newspaper aimed to: ...do justice to both races; allay any irritation that may arise; and engender mutual feelings of forbearance and goodwill/Ko ta matou hiahia kia puta te pai ki nga iwi katoa o enei whenua, ahakoa Maori, ahakoa Pakeha, a kia he amuamu a aua tangata kia ratou (August 7, 1875: 124).
A newspaper owned, printed and published by Maori people ....We shall be glad to receive information from all the tribes - the earliest and most reliable news - the localities where the Government or private persons may either be purchasing or leasing lands; to answer, according to the best of our ability, any reasonable questions; and be willing to ventilate any grievance, and afford by means of the publicity it will obtain, our best efforts for its redress/Ina hoki na te Maori tenei Nupepa i mahi....A e pai ana kia tuhituhi korero mai nga iwi katoa ki te Nupepa nei. I nga korero o a ratou kainga e noho ai. A o nga korero hoko whenua, mo nga utu whenua a Te Kawanatanga, a nga Pakeha ranei. A ki te mea ka pataia mai a matou whakaaro, ka utua aua patai, ki ta te tika i ako mai ai kia matou. A e pai ana kia tukua mai nga kupu o nga mea e pouritia ana e nga iwi Maori, a ka taia e matou hei titiro ma te tokomaha. A e aro atu ano matou ki aua mea, kia puta ai he ora ma nga tangata e mahia hetia ana, e nga he o te ao nei (ibid. : 125).
It was associated with the Repudiation (of land sales) Movement of Hawke's Bay, and was highly critical of Sir Donald McLean's policy as represented in the pages of Te Waka Maori. John Sheehan, who was a leader of the Repudiation Movement and member of the party opposed to the Government, was involved in the production of Te Wananga. In 1877, with the change of Government, he became the new Native Minister.
This newspaper is on microfilm and microfiche. Original copies are held at:
Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington:
Auckland Institute and Museum Library:
Auckland Public Library:
Auckland University Library:
Canterbury Public Library, Christchurch:
Dunedin Public Library:
Victoria University Library, Wellington:
Wellington Public Library: