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close this bookConducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (United Nations University, 1999, 375 p.)
close this folder9. Emerging developments in EIA
close this folder9.2 Cumulative effects assessment
close this folder9.2.1 Concepts and principles relevant to CEA
View the document(introduction...)
View the document9.2.1.1 Model of causality
View the document9.2.1.2 Input-process-output model
View the document9.2.1.3 Temporal and spatial accumulation
View the document9.2.1.4 Control factors Model of causality

A cause and effect relationship exists between the perturbation and the response of the system. This causal model is fundamental to a framework of cumulative environmental change. The nature of the cause and effect relationship is complex because of multiple causation, feedback mechanisms, and variable system response.