|Conducting Environmental Impact Assessment in Developing Countries (United Nations University, 1999, 375 p.)|
|9. Emerging developments in EIA|
|9.2 Cumulative effects assessment|
|9.2.1 Concepts and principles relevant to CEA|
A cause and effect relationship exists between the perturbation and the response of the system. This causal model is fundamental to a framework of cumulative environmental change. The nature of the cause and effect relationship is complex because of multiple causation, feedback mechanisms, and variable system response.