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close this bookDisaster Mitigation - 2nd Edition (Department of Humanitarian Affairs/United Nations Disaster Relief Office - Disaster Management Training Programme - United Nations Development Programme , 1994, 64 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentUnited Nations reorganization and the Disaster Management Training Programme
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderPart 1 - Introduction to mitigation concepts
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe sanitary revolution: a paradigm for disaster mitigation
View the documentKnow your enemy: hazards and their effects
View the documentSaving life and reducing economic disruption
View the documentTargeting mitigation where it has most effect
View the documentVulnerability
close this folderSpecific Hazards and Mitigation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFloods and water hazards
View the documentEarthquakes
View the documentVolcanic eruption
View the documentLand instabilities
View the documentStrong winds (typhoons, hurricanes, cyclones, tropical storms and tornados)
View the documentTechnological hazards
View the documentDrought and desertification
View the documentSUMMARY
close this folderPart 2 - Actions to reduce risk
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentReducing hazard vs reducing vulnerability
View the documentTools, powers and budgets
View the documentCommunity-based mitigation
View the documentThe menu of mitigation actions
View the documentSUMMARY
close this folderPart 3 - Mitigation strategies
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAims and methods
View the documentEconomics of mitigation
View the documentPracticalities of mitigation
View the documentOpportunities for mitigation: post-disaster implementation
View the documentEmpowerment and community-based mitigation
View the documentSUMMARY
close this folderPart 4 - Implementing organizations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentBuilding up skills and institutions
View the documentThe regional context: a problem shared
View the documentInternational exchange of expertise
View the documentSupporting decision-making: external specialists
View the documentKnowledge dissemination
View the documentInternational decade for natural disaster reduction
View the documentDisaster mitigation in UNDP country programming
View the documentInitial phases of the UNDP country programming exercise
View the documentSUMMARY
View the documentAnnex 1: Profile of selected United Nations agencies and their activities in disaster mitigation
View the documentAnnex 2: Acronyms
View the documentAnnex 3: Additional reading
View the documentGlossary
View the documentModule evaluation

Technological hazards

Mechanism of destruction

Explosions cause loss of life, injury and destruction of buildings and infrastructure; transportation accidents kill and injure passengers and crew, and may release hazardous and polluting substances; industrial fires can achieve very high temperatures and affect large areas; hazardous substances released into the air or water can travel long distances and cause contamination of air, water supply, land, crops and livestock making areas uninhabitable for humans; wildlife is destroyed, and ecological systems disrupted. Large-scale disasters can threaten the stability of the global ecology.

Parameters of severity

Quantity of hazardous substances released; temperature of fire; extent of explosion destruction; area of contamination of air, sea, groundwater; local intensity of contamination (parts per million, Becquerels/liter for radio-activity).


Fire; failures of plant safety design; incorrect plant operating procedures; failures of plant components; accidental impact; arson and sabotage; earthquakes.

Hazard assessment and mapping techniques

Inventories and maps of storage locations of toxic/hazardous substances and their characteristics; common transportation routes for dangerous substances; maps of possible zone of contamination and contamination intensity in the event of a release of any given size; traffic corridors and historical accident records for transportation hazard areas;

Potential for reducing hazard

Improved safety standards in plant and equipment design; anticipation of possible hazards in plant design; fail-safe design and operating procedures; dispersal of hazardous materials; legislation; preparedness planning

Onset and warning

Rapid (minutes or hours) or sudden (no warning); industrial plant design should incorporate monitoring and warning systems for fire, component failure and build-up of dangerous conditions; release of pollutants may be slow enough for warning and evacuation of plant operatives and public; explosions can in some cases be anticipated.

Elements most at risk

Industrial plant or vehicle and its employees or crew; passengers or residents of nearby settlements; adjacent buildings; livestock/crops in the vicinity of the plant (up to hundreds of kilometers in the case of large-scale releases of airborne pollutants and radioactive materials); regional water supply and hydrology; fauna and flora.

Main mitigation strategies

Reduce or eliminate hazard by the means listed above; improve fire-resistance by use of fire-resistant materials, building fire barriers, smoke extraction; improving detectors and warning systems; preparedness planning - improve firefighting and pollution dispersal capabilities, and emergency relief and evacuation planning for plant employees and nearby settlements, (crew and passengers in the case of vehicles). Initiate on-site and off-site safety plans, conduct drills in conjunction with local fire departments. Improve capabilities of civil defense and emergency authorities. Limit or reduce storage capacity of dangerous or flamable chemicals.

Community participation

Action to monitor pollution levels, to ensure inspection and enforcement of existing safety standards and to improve safety legislation. Prepare evacuation plans.