|Disaster Mitigation - 2nd Edition (Department of Humanitarian Affairs/United Nations Disaster Relief Office - Disaster Management Training Programme - United Nations Development Programme , 1994, 64 p.)|
|United Nations reorganization and the Disaster Management Training Programme|
|Part 1 - Introduction to mitigation concepts|
|The sanitary revolution: a paradigm for disaster mitigation|
|Know your enemy: hazards and their effects|
|Saving life and reducing economic disruption|
|Targeting mitigation where it has most effect|
|Specific Hazards and Mitigation|
|Floods and water hazards|
|Strong winds (typhoons, hurricanes, cyclones, tropical storms and tornados)|
|Drought and desertification|
|Part 2 - Actions to reduce risk|
|Reducing hazard vs reducing vulnerability|
|Tools, powers and budgets|
|The menu of mitigation actions|
|Part 3 - Mitigation strategies|
|Aims and methods|
|Economics of mitigation|
|Practicalities of mitigation|
|Opportunities for mitigation: post-disaster implementation|
|Empowerment and community-based mitigation|
|Part 4 - Implementing organizations|
|Building up skills and institutions|
|The regional context: a problem shared|
|International exchange of expertise|
|Supporting decision-making: external specialists|
|International decade for natural disaster reduction|
|Disaster mitigation in UNDP country programming|
|Initial phases of the UNDP country programming exercise|
|Annex 1: Profile of selected United Nations agencies and their activities in disaster mitigation|
|Annex 2: Acronyms|
|Annex 3: Additional reading|
introduction to mitigation concepts
The essential first step in any mitigation strategy is to understand the nature of the hazards which may be faced.
The list of hazards and their order of importance is different for each country and region, and may even vary from village to village. Existing studies and mapping may help to identify the most significant hazards in any one area.
Understanding each hazard requires comprehension of:
- its causes
- its geographical distribution, magnitude or severity, and probable frequency of occurrence
- the physical mechanisms of destruction
- the elements and activities most vulnerable to destruction
- the possible economic and social consequences of the disaster
Mitigation involves not only saving lives and injury and reducing property losses, but also reducing the adverse consequences of natural hazards to economic activities and social institutions.
Where resources for mitigation are limited, they should be targeted where they will be most effective - on the most vulnerable elements and in support of existing community level activities.
Vulnerability assessment is a crucial aspect of planning effective mitigation. Vulnerability implies both susceptibility to physical and economic damage and lack of resources for rapid recovery.
To reduce physical vulnerability weak elements may be protected or strengthened. To reduce the vulnerability of social institutions and economic activities, infrastructure may need to be modified or strengthened or institutional arrangements modified.