|Trainee's Manual on Disaster Preparedness (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 59 p.)|
|Module I. Hazards, Disasters & Disaster Management Concepts|
A. Definition of Disaster Management Terms
1. HAZARD is a phenomenon that pose threat(s) to people, structure or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. They could be either man-made or naturally occuring in our environment (natural).
2. NATURAL HAZARD
3. MAN-MADE HAZARD
4. TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARD
5. DISASTER is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope within its own resources.
6. DISASTER MANAGEMENT refers to the range of activities designed to maintain control over a disaster and emergency situation and to provide a framework for helping at risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster.
7. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS includes measures taken to be able to deal with a threat when it occurs, e.g. warnings and evacuation. Such measures are usually aimed at minimizing loss of life, disruption of critical services and damage.
8. DISASTER PREVENTION refers to measures that are aimed at impending occurrence of a disaster and actually stop disasters from occuring, e.g. artificially producing rain to prevent drought.
9. DISASTER MITIGATION - measures to reduce the impacts of disaster, e.g. enforcement of building code and constructing sabo dams to control lahar flow.
11. ACCESS SURVEY
12. DISASTER RESPONSE refers to measures which are taken immediately prior to and following a disaster. Such measures are directed towards saving life, protecting property, and dealing with the immediate damage caused by the disaster. Such measures include the activation of emergency operations center, mobilization of task services, emergency relief assistance, warning notification, and post-disaster assessment.
13. DISASTER ASSESSMENT
14. REHABILITATION refers to activities that are undertaken to help the victims return to normal life and be re-integrated into the regular community functions. It includes restoration of repairable public utilities, housing and resettlement inclusive of provision of new livelihood activities. It provides the link between the disaster-related activities and national development and at the same time ensures that the results of the disaster are effectively reflected in future policies in the interest of national progress.
16. DAMAGE SURVEY
17. HAZARD MAPPING
18. RISK MAPPING
19. VULNERABILITY is the relationship between the severity of hazard and the degree of damage caused. Each element - a building, a person, an activity - will be affected differently by hazards of different severity. The more severe the hazard is, the more damage will be inflicted on the element.
20. EMERGENCY RESPONSE includes activities undertaken immediately following a disaster. It includes damage and needs assessment, immediate relief, rescue and debris clearance.
B. Disaster Cycle
1. Phases of Disaster e.g. of activities
2. Inter-relationship of the Phases