Case study 10.5 Map Ta Phut Port Project
Note: This case study can be used to generate an impact network
Name of the project: Environmental impact statement of Map Ta Phut
Port Project, by Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand, August 1985.
Type of environmental analysis: EIS.
Type of project: This is the development of a commercial port or
multi-user zone. Within this area, the following will be established: a port
operations centre, bulk commodity storage areas and berths, general cargo
storage facilities, and bulk liquid berths. Marginal reclamation along the
shoreline will also be incorporated.
The site of the Map Ta Phut port was fixed during the earlier
feasibility study (JICA 1983) relating to the establishment of a major heavy
industry and residential zone in Rayong province. Concerning berth requirements,
construction of Map Ta Phut port is intended to proceed in phases to provide
facilities supporting progressive growth in industries adjacent to the site.
Thus three development stages are considered.
(a) Short-term development: required before 1992 for loading raw
and finished products of NFC, MPC, etc.
(b) Interim operations: specialized facilities for handling
hazardous flammable liquids.
(c) Interim operations: specialized facilities for handling
hazardous flammable liquids.
Table 10.4 Work force - port personnel
General cargo berth
Customs & immigration
Harbour operation - marine
Harbour operations - engineering & administration
Other facilities - gatehouse, weighbridge, fire, medical, canteen,
The port will have all the basic facilities as following: (1)
harbour craft requirements - tugs, pilot launches, work boats, buoy maintenance;
(2) road and rail; (3) work force (see Table 10.4); (4) water supply, drainage,
and wastewater collection and treatment; (5) solid waste management; (6)
emergency services; (7) power supply; (8) port traffic; and (9) cargo handling
The Map Ta Phut port project is located in Rayong province in the
eastern seaboard area and the site is exposed to the Gulf of Thailand.
Reports on pertinent studies
See References 2 and 3, page 329.
Environmental study area
The port will occupy approximately 2 to 8 km of shoreline and an
offshore area within the break of about 4.75 km. The dredged shipping channel
will extend to approximately 4 to 5 km from shore. For the purposes of the EIS
the port has been defined to include all offshore works, the commercial port
area, and the berths and loading/unloading areas for specific uses (tapioca,
fertilizer, raw materials, and products).
Not provided with the report.
EIA budget adequacy
Not provided with the report.
The methodology basically follows the procedure laid down by the
National Environment Board. First of all an initial environmental examination
was made in January 1985, for which comments were received from IEAT and the
National Environment Board, after which this EIS report was made. The EIS
follows an "item to item'' impact description.
Existing environmental conditions
See the relevant section from Case Study 10.4, pages 307-310.
Environmental effects from the project
The network of potential impacts of the proposed port is divided
into main parts: (i) the construction phase and (ii) the operational phase.
Adverse impacts: aquatic
Dredging and reclamation will result in formation of plumes of
suspended sediment around the dredgers, reclamation outfalls, and dumping
ground. The coastal waters at Map Ta Phut are at present unpolluted and have low
levels of suspended sediments.
Small areas (at most 3.5 km2 mostly about 0.5
km2) will be affected sufficiently by increased turbidity and
deposited sediments to affect marine biota and productivity, in some cases
causing total loss of photosynthetic activity. This will necessarily have
further implications in the food chain of the coastal environment. The impact in
the context of biotic and fishery resources of the Eastern Seaboard is not
considered to be significant, although local fishermen will be forced to fish
elsewhere. There is little inshore fishing activity at Map Ta Phut compared with
elsewhere along the coast and the coastal waters are not considered to be a
significant spawning or nursery areas compared with waters further to the east.
Disturbed sediments will have a more significant impact on
recreational resources at the Sai Thong beach resort just to the east of the
port site, reducing the quality of inshore waters for contact and non-contact
recreation during the construction period.
Disturbed sediments will also damage the remaining corals on the
islands of Ko Saket, but these have been evaluated as low in significance as an
ecological or touristic resource in comparison with other colonies occurring
along the Rayong coastline.
The sediments that will be released have been tested to determine
their polluting potential. It is concluded that the sediments are unpolluted and
that the potential for uptake of dissolved oxygen or release of nutrients
affecting biological productivity is negligible.
Maintenance dredging during operations will not have significant
impacts on the marine environment.
Other sources of water pollution in the area at present are
tapioca-processing plants and communities. These result in poor quality in
streams flowing through the area (high BOD and low dissolved oxygen) but there
is no evidence of their having adverse effects on coastal water quality.
Monitoring of coastal waters and sediments indicate that the marine environment
is largely unaffected by land-based sources of pollution.
Sources of water pollution include: run-off during construction
and quarrying; sanitary wastewater during construction and operation, including
shipboard wastes; and oily wastewater and tank washings.
The impacts from run-off, sanitary, and oily wastewater will not
be significant in relation to other sources which will occur as the area
develops, provided appropriate measures are taken to collect, treat, and dispose
Quarrying and transport of quarried materials also have the
potential for water pollution by dust, but this is not expected to be
significant at any of the proposed sites.
Construction of the port could affect dispersion of effluents from
the proposed outfall from the National Fertilizer Corporation's plant on the
industrial estate. This impact has been evaluated and the impact is not
considered to be significant.
Adverse impacts: atmospheric
Sources of air emissions during construction will include: dust
from traffic, site clearing, and construction activity; emissions from vehicles
bringing materials to the site and from construction equipment; emissions from
burning of waste materials; and dust from quarrying.
These emissions are expected to result in degradation of air
quality, primarily in the working environment affecting construction employees.
Dust and other emissions from on-site are unlikely to spread sufficiently to
affect homes and other properties around the site.
Dust and emissions from vehicles carrying materials, particularly
quarried rock and aggregate to and from the site, are expected to generate dust
nuisance in communities along their routes. This will only be significant if the
Khao Bandai Krit East site is selected as the routes from other sites do not
pass close to communities.
Dust from quarrying itself will affect communities and farm fields
in the immediate vicinity of sites. It will be significant at Khao Bandai Krit
East and Khao Noen Krapok where it will affect cassava fields and orchards
adjacent to the quarry sites. There are no houses within 500 m of any sites,
except for worker housing at Khao Chi Chan. Dust will be generated within the
quarry working areas and measures will need to be taken to protect workers.
The existing air quality at the site is high and there are no
major sources of air emissions. Development of the industrial estate will
inevitably change this situation. Emissions and resulting air quality resulting
from ships using the port and other port activities have been predicted.
Emissions from the port are unlikely to cause significant deterioration in air
quality compared with NEB standards.
Dusty cargoes present risks to workers on site and to people and
property from dust nuisance generated during handling and dust explosion
Handling tapioca is likely to be the greatest source of nuisance
in surrounding communities, although there may be some visual impact, as is
evidenced from tapioca-handling facilities elsewhere on the Inner Gulf.
Adverse impacts: noise and vibration
The noise environment at Map Ta Phut is typical of a quiet rural
area. There are no significant sources of noise in the area at present. Sources
of noise during construction and operation will include: construction equipment
and activity; vehicles; cargo handling equipment; and ship and port PA systems
The working environment will be subject to significant noise
levels and measures will be required to ensure that Labour Department standards
for occupational noise levels are met.
After development of the industrial estate, the numbers of people
living close enough to the site to be affected by noise from port operations
will be very small and this impact is not considered to be significant.
Adverse impacts: land and other resources
The coastal strip which will be affected by development of the
port and the associated industrial estate is low lying. About 40 per cent of the
area is used for farming - growing orchard fruits, coconut, cassava, and other
crops. There are 5 houses and several groups of fisherman's huts along the
shoreline. There is also a picnic area. Two houses and one group of fishing huts
are actually within the area to be occupied by the port.
Outside the boundaries there are numerous shelters and huts, a
private resort area, and 1.5 km to the east a small beach resort (Sai Thong)
with a capacity of about 150 persons.
All properties and land uses within the site boundaries will be
lost, but the impact of the port in isolation from that of the industrial estate
will be compensated. Fishermen using the shoreline are mostly not land owners
and will not therefore be entitled to compensation. Many of them have moved to
the area within recent years to avoid overcrowding elsewhere.
Construction of the port will change patterns of littoral sediment
drift causing build up to the west of the port and erosion to the east. This
would have a significant impact on the beach at Sai Thong unless provisions can
be made to replace the eroded material.
The port development will place only a small demand on water and
power supplies and the transportation network compared with the industrial
estate. Its impact is not therefore considered to be significant.
Black sand mining for extraction of tin has been carried out on a
small scale along the foreshore at Map Ta Phut. Access to the resource will
necessarily be foreclosed by port construction.
The value of these resources has never been estimated but the fact
that no mining has been undertaken in recent years suggests that the resource is
not of major commercial significance.
The potential impact on Sai Thong beach resort was noted above.
The island of Ko Samet is also being developed for tourism. The port is unlikely
to reduce the level of use of these facilities, it may in fact increase it; but
it is likely to change the visitor population from non-local visitors to
visitors associated with the port and industrial estate workforce and supporting
populations. The area is not considered to be of regional or national
significance for tourism.
Adverse impacts: visual impacts
The port and industrial estate development will have a major
impact on the immediate visual environment, replacing an undeveloped coastline
with large industrial buildings, cranes, warehouses, and other structures.
The main impact will be on those people living adjacent to the
site or using the island of Ko Samet for recreation. The horizon is close owing
to the low-lying wooded terrain and the port is not expected to be visible from
the resort buildings at Sai Thong but the eastern reclamation will be visible
from the beach. Until such time as major structures are built on the eastern
reclamation, the port is unlikely to be obtrusive from the beach. Ships entering
and leaving the port may be considered as a positive attraction.
People using Ko Samet will have a clearer view of the commercial
port area and the industrial estate. The impact will therefore be much greater.
Adverse impacts: solid waste disposal
Wastes will be generated during construction, by the construction
workforce, by the permanent workforce, by cargo handling operations, and from
ships discharging in port.
The daily waste generation during operation is estimated to be
about 3 tonnes per day. Waste generation during construction and operation is
unlikely to cause adverse environmental impacts provided appropriate measures
are taken for collection, treatment, and disposal.
Adverse impacts: accidental
Accidents may be caused by incidents on-board ship, fire,
explosion, occupational accidents, collision between vessels, and grounding, on
the shore or on the gas pipeline to the west of the port.
These accidents may result in loss of life or injury, damage to
property, and pollution by spills. The risk has been quantitatively assessed on
the basis of presently available data; however, it is our view that the risks
are such as to require strict control over shipping movements.
Risks from explosions caused by dusty materials are discussed
above (Adverse impacts: atmospheric-page 320). Other risks to people and
property may arise from handling of dangerous cargoes: vinyl chloride monomer,
hydrocarbon gases, chlorinated hydrocarbons, caustic soda. Details of hazardous
cargoes to be handled at the port are not available, but if such cargoes are to
be transhipped, the appropriate preventive measures and emergency provisions
should be established.
Adverse impacts: socio-economic and public health impact
Development of the port and industrial estate will have a very
major impact on local socio-economic conditions, changing the area from a rural
area with low population density and relatively low income, to an industrialized
area with a large new population and opportunities for significant creation of
The impact of the port alone is unlikely to be significant in
isolation from the complete development, as the port workforce will be 900-1,000
compared with an estimated total of over 15,000 for the industrial estate. This
could lead to an induced population increase of as much as 70,000 by the time
the estate is fully developed. A new town will be built to house the majority of
this population and a separate EIS is being prepared for this development.
Two houses and a group of fishing huts lie within the port
boundary and will be demolished in the early stage of construction. Several
other properties lie within the industrial estate boundary. At present it seems
that the affected families and fishermen are not aware of the proposed
development and are making no plans to relocate.
The main employment sectors that will be affected by the port
development are inshore fishing and tourism. The number of families relying on
fishing for part or all of their income is believed to be about 20. 70 crab and
shrimp nets are in operation in waters adjacent to the port and there are
several squid fishing boats. Incomes of these families vary from season to
season very substantially, but are generally low compared with industrial and
It is expected that some fishermen will take up employment
associated with the port; others will move elsewhere and provisions may have to
be made to facilitate this to avoid family and social problems.
Employment in tourism, at the Sai Thong beach resort and Ko Saket,
is expected to increase as a result of the port development. There will also be
substantial increases in employment opportunities in sectors servicing the large
It is likely that unless strict controls are exercised, illegal
development will occur around the plot boundary, with consequent problems of
water supply sanitation, public health, waste disposal, and unsightly
Public health impacts may include an increase in communicable
disease incidence caused by the influx of workers and foreign sailors and
disposal of shipboard waste; an increase in disease through poor sanitation in
camps, new housing areas, and squatter settlements; and stress on available
medical facilities caused by a large increase in population.
Measures for offsetting adverse effects
The following mitigation measures have been proposed for dredging
and reclamation. Construction of the western breakwater and silt basin should be
a priority to minimize sediment release from the reclamation. Reclamation of the
eastern area should be as far as practicable, awaiting construction of the
eastern revetment, to minimize impacts on the Sai Thong beach resort. The
eastern reclamation should be drained into the port, not outside the eastern
revetment, to minimize impacts at Sai Thong. Best practicable technology and
operating methods should be used to minimize sediment release from dredging and
barge loading. All operations should be properly supervised and a regular
programme of equipment maintenance carried out. Overspill from loading barges
should be kept to a minimum, consistent with achieving an economically viable
load, while loading barges should be regularly checked and maintained to prevent
leakage from bottom seals. Spoil should be dumped only within specified
boundaries and a pattern of dumping should be adopted to minimize repeated
dumping in exactly the same spot. These same general conditions should also
apply to maintenance dredging where relevant. It is not considered that further
physical measures to control fine sediment release are necessary.
The following monitoring measures are proposed. Bottom conditions
should be inspected and recorded by divers at intervals before and during
construction and operation and if possible a photographic record kept. Turbidity
in waters at Sai Thong should be measured at monthly intervals over the
construction period to monitor aesthetic and water quality impact on recreation.
Dissolved oxygen, ammoniacal nitrogen, and other nutrients should be measured at
intervals during construction to determine whether water quality changes have
occurred as a result of dredging. Records should be kept of any evidence of
algal blooms and of the conditions under which they have occurred. If it can be
arranged, a serial photographic record of sediment plumes around dredgers,
barges, reclamation drains, and dumping sites should be made, principally for
reference in assessment of similar developments in the future.
Mitigation measures for other impacts on water quality. Temporary
bunds should be constructed to contain surface run-off from the land sites.
Collected run-off should be passed through retention ponds to collect suspended
solids, before discharge. A treatment system should be provided at the
construction camp. This should be either a package plant or septic tank.
Consideration should be given to two possible alternatives for treatment of
sanitary wastewater during port operations: either an anaerobic pond followed by
facultative and polishing ponds discharging to a near-shore outfall; or an
anaerobic pond discharging to an offshore outfall. A conventional activated
sludge sewage treatment plant is not considered to be appropriate for port
operations owing to fluctuations in the volume and quality of loads. Sanitary
effluents should not be discharged into the harbour itself. There may be some
merit in providing a combined outfall with NFC, provided construction can be
scheduled appropriately for both developments and operational arrangements
organized. All sanitary provisions should be in accordance with the Memorandum
on Guidelines for Incorporating Sanitation Parameters into Planning Design of
Ports and Harbours in Developing Countries including Thailand. Oily wastewater
(from fuel storage tanks, maintenance shops, ship bilgewaters, tank washings)
and run-off from dirty areas of the port (vehicle marshalling, parking, and fuel
storage areas) should all be collected and passed to an oil-water separator
before discharge. Oily run-off may be returned to the stormwater system after
treatment. Reception facilities for oily wastes from ships should be provided
and their use enforced by monitoring and penalties for oily discharges in or
approaching the port.
Regular monitoring of water quality should be carried out within
the port and in adjacent waters during operation, to identify adverse
Mitigation for general emissions. Good housekeeping practices
should be adopted to control dust from construction operations, quarrying, and
transport of quarried materials. These may include periodic water spraying dusty
areas and shielding of dusty areas, maintenance of road surfaces, ventilation of
enclosed areas, cleaning of equipment and vehicles as well as adoption of proper
operating methods. Unpaved access roads which may lead to dust problems in
communities should be paved. Burning of waste materials should be avoided.
Occasional monitoring of air quality should be carried out by the
appropriate government agencies in Map Ta Phut village, Sai Thong, and the new
town, and in the working environment of the port.
General housekeeping measures to control dust emissions as
described above, should be adopted when handling dusty cargoes. Recommendations
on handling dusty cargoes to minimize dust nuisance in the occupational and
external environment and to reduce the risk of explosion, should be adopted, and
laid down by the Port Authority as conditions for private operators. Occasional
monitoring should be carried out by the Port Authority to determine dust levels
in the occupational environment within the port.
Noise specifications for construction equipment should be laid
down in contracts for construction work in accordance with Labour Department
standards for the occupational environment.
Occasional measurements of sound levels in the occupational and
external environment should be made to monitor noise. Records of complaints
should be kept.
Land and other resources
Mitigation measures. Compensation will be provided for land owners
as required by existing schemes. Several fishermen who have no legal status will
be displaced and consideration may be given to giving them financial and other
assistance in finding alternative employment or alternative locations at which
to keep their boats and equipment. Strict boundary regulations should be
enforced to prevent overspill of activities beyond the port and industrial
estate and to prevent illegal squatter settlement. The boundary should be
securely fenced and regularly inspected. A programme of excavation of sand
accumulated on the west side of the port and transported to the Sai Thong beach
should be adopted, to mitigate the adverse effects of erosion at Sai Thong and
provide an improved beach resource.
It would be useful to monitor use of the Sai Thong beach resort,
if the owners agreement can be obtained, to provide information on the
implications of this type of development for coastal recreation.
No special provisions are considered to be necessary with regard
to power, water and other resources.
Special measures to mitigate visual impacts at Map Ta Phut are not
considered to be necessary. However, normal standards of good design and
maintenance should be adopted to avoid visual clutter caused by port structures
Solid waste management
Contractors should be required to make proper arrangements for
disposal of wastes arising during the construction period. Dumping on the
foreshore or in the sea and burning of waste should not be permitted. Dumping of
wastes from ships approaching the port or into the harbour should be prohibited
by harbour regulations. Provisions should be made for reception of shipboard
wastes and for their safe disposal if any risk is presented to public health.
Arrangements should be made with the Municipality for collection and proper
disposal of solid wastes. Charges may be levied on private operators and ships
generating waste for disposal.
Port approaches and operations should be regulated in accordance
with international navigational standards regarding pilotage, anchorage, ship
movements, etc. A prohibited anchorage should be defined within 1 km of the gas
pipeline and established by international agreement. Local regulations should be
issued prohibiting passage of deep draft vessels in the vicinity of the gas
pipeline in waters less than 15 m deep. Handling of hazardous cargoes should be
subject to approval by the Port Authority. When application for such approval is
made, information should be required to enable an evaluation of the risk and the
adequacy of the preventive and emergency provisions to be made. International
standards on handling of dangerous cargoes should be adopted. A first aid unit,
properly equipped, staffed, and trained, should be established by the Port
Authority. An emergency response system should be developed in cooperation with
local fire, police, and medical services, and regular exercises should be
carried out to test preparedness. Port workers should be regularly informed and
trained in safe working methods and emergency procedures.
Socio-economic and public health impacts
A programme of actively informing residents of the port area about
the proposed development should be undertaken as soon as the decision to proceed
has been taken. This will enable the population to make plans in reasonable time
for relocation, new employment, schooling, etc. An orderly relocation of
population would be in the interests of preventing illegal settlement. Some
residents may benefit from assistance (financial or other) in relocation where
they are not entitled to compensation.
To minimize public health impacts: arrangements for quarantine of
vessels should be made in accordance with international practice; temporary and
permanent workers should receive medical examinations and necessary treatment
before starting work; facilities for first aid should be provided at the
construction site and camp, and in the port; and proper sanitation should be
provided during construction and operation to minimize the spread of disease.
Necessary conditions to achieve mitigation of impacts during
construction should be stipulated in contracts for construction work and site
policing: inspection should be carried out. Where activities not under the
direct control of the Port Authority are to be carried out (e.g., transfer of
hazardous materials from tank storage to the industrial estate), all operating
methods and equipment should be subject to evaluation and approval by the Port
Authority. An environmental control division (or officer) should be appointed
for Map Ta Phut Port. The duties of this division should include: evaluation and
approval of activities occurring in the port not under the direct control of the
Port Authority; maintenance of the water supply and wastewater treatment system;
collection and disposal of wastes from ships and onshore; monitoring and
enforcing pollution prevention regulations affecting vessels; and carrying out
regular monitoring to identify adverse environmental changes caused by
pollution. The model proposed by Poston may be used as a guideline for
establishing the environmental control division.
Harbour regulations should be drafted to control: discharge of
liquid or solid wastes from ships approaching or moored in the port; use of
reception facilities for sanitary wastewater, oily wastes, and solid wastes from
ships; conditions of operation for handling dusty cargoes to minimize nuisance
in the occupational and external environment and the risk of explosions;
piloting, anchorage, ship movements, cargo handling; information to be provided
by vessels approaching the port; conditions of approval for handling hazardous
cargoes to minimize risks of fire, explosion, toxic release, or other hazard.
The required monitoring programme for each impact has already been
described, along with the mitigation measures for the convenience of a
continuity of the explanation.
The EIS report is prepared in fulfilment of the requirements for
preparation of an EIA of the Map Ta Phut Port Project. This study addresses the
environmental impacts of the port alone; however, the overall development of the
area comprises an industrial estate, an urban area, and associated
infrastructure and services as well as the port.
The EIS report lacks a number of items found in formal
presentation, such as the environmental base map, beneficial impacts from the
project, the professionals or EIA team involved in the study, etc. Without
these, the EIS really looks a bit handicapped and poses problems to the
researchers. The organization of the report is not sequential and looks poor.
But the analytical work is envisaged to depth, and thus the technical work is
appreciable. This is one of the very few EIA case studies regarding the port
development done in the region.
1 Manual of NEB Guidelines for Preparation of Environmental
Impact Evaluations, National Environment Board (NEB), Bangkok, April 1979.
2 R. J. Hofer, Water Quality Management Plan for the Raoyong Map
Ta Phut Development Planning Areas, Office of National Environment Board.
3 JICA, The Study on the Development of the Industrial Port on the
Eastern Seaboard in the Kingdom of Thailand, Final Report, 1983.
Source: Strengthening Environmental Cooperation with Developing